Aliases for PTGS1 Gene
External Ids for PTGS1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTGS1 Gene
This is one of two genes encoding similar enzymes that catalyze the conversion of arachinodate to prostaglandin. The encoded protein regulates angiogenesis in endothelial cells, and is inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. Based on its ability to function as both a cyclooxygenase and as a peroxidase, the encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein. The protein may promote cell proliferation during tumor progression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
GeneCards Summary for PTGS1 Gene
PTGS1 (Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGS1 include Gastric Ulcer and Aspirin Resistance. Among its related pathways are Overview of nanoparticle effects and HETE and HPETE biosynthesis and metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include heme binding and dioxygenase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PTGS2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PTGS1 Gene
Dual cyclooxygenase and peroxidase in the biosynthesis pathway of prostanoids, a class of C20 oxylipins mainly derived from arachidonate, with a particular role in the inflammatory response. The cyclooxygenase activity oxygenates arachidonate (AA, C20:4(n-6)) to the hydroperoxy endoperoxide prostaglandin G2 (PGG2), and the peroxidase activity reduces PGG2 to the hydroxy endoperoxide PGH2, the precursor of all 2-series prostaglandins and thromboxanes. This complex transformation is initiated by abstraction of hydrogen at carbon 13 (with S-stereochemistry), followed by insertion of molecular O2 to form the endoperoxide bridge between carbon 9 and 11 that defines prostaglandins. The insertion of a second molecule of O2 (bis-oxygenase activity) yields a hydroperoxy group in PGG2 that is then reduced to PGH2 by two electrons (PubMed:7947975). Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the generation of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), which promotes platelet activation and aggregation, vasoconstriction and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (Probable).
Cyclooxygenase (also known as COX, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase, Prostaglandin G/H synthase) is expressed in cells in three isoforms. COX-1 (constitutive) and COX-2 (inducible) isoforms catalyze the rate-limiting step of prostaglandin production.