This gene encodes an enzyme involved in the metabolism of prostaglandins. The encoded protein catalyzes the NADPH-dependent conversion of 15-keto-prostaglandin E2 to 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-prostaglandin E2. This protein may also be involved in regulating activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [p... See more...

Aliases for PTGR2 Gene

Aliases for PTGR2 Gene

  • Prostaglandin Reductase 2 2 3 4 5
  • Zinc-Binding Alcohol Dehydrogenase Domain-Containing Protein 1 3 4
  • 15-Oxoprostaglandin 13-Reductase 3 4
  • EC 1.3.1.48 4 50
  • ZADH1 3 4
  • PRG-2 3 4
  • Zinc Binding Alcohol Dehydrogenase, Domain Containing 1 3
  • Zinc Binding Alcohol Dehydrogenase Domain Containing 1 2
  • Epididymis Secretory Sperm Binding Protein 3
  • 15-Oxoprostaglandin-Delta13-Reductase 3
  • Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 298 3
  • HEL-S-298 3
  • FLJ39091 2
  • PTGR2 5
  • PGR2 3

External Ids for PTGR2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PTGR2 Gene

  • ZADH1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTGR2 Gene

  • GC14P073389
  • GC14P074318
  • GC14P054485
  • GC14P073852
  • GC14P073854

Summaries for PTGR2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PTGR2 Gene

  • This gene encodes an enzyme involved in the metabolism of prostaglandins. The encoded protein catalyzes the NADPH-dependent conversion of 15-keto-prostaglandin E2 to 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-prostaglandin E2. This protein may also be involved in regulating activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

GeneCards Summary for PTGR2 Gene

PTGR2 (Prostaglandin Reductase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Arachidonic acid metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and 15-oxoprostaglandin 13-oxidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ENSG00000258653.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PTGR2 Gene

  • Functions as 15-oxo-prostaglandin 13-reductase and acts on 15-keto-PGE1, 15-keto-PGE2, 15-keto-PGE1-alpha and 15-keto-PGE2-alpha with highest activity towards 15-keto-PGE2 (PubMed:19000823). Overexpression represses transcriptional activity of PPARG and inhibits adipocyte differentiation (By similarity).

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PTGR2 Gene

Genomics for PTGR2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for PTGR2 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PTGR2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PTGR2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PTGR2 gene promoter:
  • CUTL1
  • FOXD1
  • LCR-F1
  • Meis-1
  • Meis-1a
  • Meis-1b
  • PPAR-gamma1
  • PPAR-gamma2

Genomic Locations for PTGR2 Gene

Latest Assembly
chr14:73,851,831-73,886,827
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
34,997 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Previous Assembly
chr14:74,318,534-74,352,429
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
33,896 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

chr14:74,318,547-74,353,530
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
34,984 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PTGR2 Gene

Genes around PTGR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PTGR2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PTGR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTGR2 Gene

Proteins for PTGR2 Gene

  • Protein details for PTGR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q8N8N7-PTGR2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Prostaglandin reductase 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q8N8N7
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q3L8A4
    • Q6MZH8

    Protein attributes for PTGR2 Gene

    Size:
    351 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38499 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PTGR2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PTGR2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PTGR2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PTGR2 Gene

Q8N8N7:
  • VVSGAAGA
  • LEKVDPQLVDGHLSYFLGAIGMPGLTSLIG
  • GVDVYFDNVGG
  • AFQSMMTGGN
  • SVDPYMR
  • KGDFVTSFYWPWQTK
  • KERNITRERF

Post-translational modifications for PTGR2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for PTGR2 Gene

Gene Families for PTGR2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for PTGR2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PTGR2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Zinc-binding alcohol dehydrogenase domain-containing protein 1 (PTGR2_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q8N8N7

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PTGR2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the NADP-dependent oxidoreductase L4BD family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the NADP-dependent oxidoreductase L4BD family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTGR2: view

Function for PTGR2 Gene

Molecular function for PTGR2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Functions as 15-oxo-prostaglandin 13-reductase and acts on 15-keto-PGE1, 15-keto-PGE2, 15-keto-PGE1-alpha and 15-keto-PGE2-alpha with highest activity towards 15-keto-PGE2 (PubMed:19000823). Overexpression represses transcriptional activity of PPARG and inhibits adipocyte differentiation (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=13,14-dihydro-15-oxo-prostaglandin E2 + NAD(+) = 15-oxoprostaglandin E2 + H(+) + NADH; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:11916, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:57400, ChEBI:CHEBI:57402, ChEBI:CHEBI:57540, ChEBI:CHEBI:57945; EC=1.3.1.48; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:19000823};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=13,14-dihydro-15-oxo-prostaglandin E2 + NADP(+) = 15-oxoprostaglandin E2 + H(+) + NADPH; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:11912, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:57400, ChEBI:CHEBI:57402, ChEBI:CHEBI:57783, ChEBI:CHEBI:58349; EC=1.3.1.48; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:19000823};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=13,14-dihydro-15-oxo-PGF2alpha + NADP(+) = 15-oxoprostaglandin F2alpha + H(+) + NADPH; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:50588, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:57783, ChEBI:CHEBI:58349, ChEBI:CHEBI:133374, ChEBI:CHEBI:133409; Evidence={ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q8VDQ1};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=13,14-dihydro-15-oxo-prostaglandin E1 + NADP(+) = 15-oxoprostaglandin E1 + H(+) + NADPH; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:50584, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:57401, ChEBI:CHEBI:57783, ChEBI:CHEBI:58349, ChEBI:CHEBI:133408; Evidence={ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q8VDQ1};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=13,14-dihydro-15-oxo-prostaglandin F1alpha + NADP(+) = 15-oxoprostaglandin F1alpha + H(+) + NADPH; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:50592, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:57783, ChEBI:CHEBI:58349, ChEBI:CHEBI:79072, ChEBI:CHEBI:133411; Evidence={ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q8VDQ1};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=11.21 uM for 15-keto-PGE2 {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19000823}; KM=15.87 uM for NADPH {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19000823}; Vmax=159 nmol/min/mg enzyme for 15-keto-PGE2 {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19000823}; Vmax=67 nmol/min/mg enzyme for NADPH {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19000823};

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PTGR2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PTGR2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTGR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 32296183
GO:0008270 NOT zinc ion binding IDA 19000823
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0036132 13-prostaglandin reductase activity IEA --
GO:0047522 15-oxoprostaglandin 13-oxidase activity IBA,IDA 19000823
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGR2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTGR2: view

Animal Models for research

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PTGR2

miRNA for PTGR2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PTGR2

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PTGR2

Clone products for research

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PTGR2 Gene

Localization for PTGR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGR2 Gene

Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTGR2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 3
mitochondrion 2
plasma membrane 1
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1
nucleus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTGR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGR2: view

Pathways & Interactions for PTGR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTGR2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTGR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006693 prostaglandin metabolic process IBA,IDA 19000823
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGR2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PTGR2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PTGR2 Gene

(5) Drugs for PTGR2 Gene - From: DrugBank and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Indomethacin Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor Cox inhibitor 154
(5E,13E)-11-HYDROXY-9,15-DIOXOPROSTA-5,13-DIEN-1-OIC ACID Experimental Pharma Target 0
NAD Experimental Pharma 0
NADP Experimental Pharma 0
NADPH Experimental Pharma 0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTGR2: view

Transcripts for PTGR2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PTGR2 Gene

13 REFSEQ mRNAs :
12 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
7 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PTGR2

Clone products for research

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTGR2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12
SP1: -
SP2: - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: -
SP5: - - - - -

Relevant External Links for PTGR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PTGR2

Expression for PTGR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PTGR2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PTGR2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Skin (12.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PTGR2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PTGR2 Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PTGR2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTGR2 Gene:

Hs.632344

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PTGR2 Gene:

Q8N8N7-PTGR2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Widely expressed.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PTGR2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.5)
  • Liver(4.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PTGR2: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PTGR2 Gene

Orthologs for PTGR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PTGR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTGR2 29 30
  • 99.91 (n)
OneToMany
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTGR2 29
  • 92.12 (n)
-- 30
  • 86 (a)
OneToMany
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTGR2 29 30
  • 91.36 (n)
OneToMany
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptgr2 29 16 30
  • 85 (n)
OneToMany
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 30
  • 85 (a)
OneToMany
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ptgr2 29
  • 84.15 (n)
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 30
  • 78 (a)
OneToMany
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PTGR2 29 30
  • 74.83 (n)
OneToMany
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 30
  • 74 (a)
OneToMany
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ptgr2 29
  • 68.3 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.18312 29
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:dkey-119a7.6 29
  • 63.77 (n)
PTGR2 30
  • 58 (a)
OneToMany
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea M106.3 29 30
  • 52.96 (n)
OneToMany
Baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes YML131W 29
  • 43 (n)
-- 30
  • 20 (a)
OneToMany
A. gosspyii yeast
(Eremothecium gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AGL360W 29
  • 42.17 (n)
Bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU02299 29
  • 47.13 (n)
Species where no ortholog for PTGR2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PTGR2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PTGR2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PTGR2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PTGR2: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for PTGR2

Paralogs for PTGR2 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PTGR2 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

  • PTGR2_HUMAN
  • G3V288_HUMAN
  • G3V2R9_HUMAN
  • G3V3Y1_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PTGR2: view

Variants for PTGR2 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PTGR2 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 14 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs34322672 Benign: not provided 73,884,091(+) CTT/C
NM_152444.4(PTGR2):c.980-6_980-5del
INTRON

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for PTGR2 Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTGR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2660789 CNV deletion 23128226
esv3634921 CNV loss 21293372
esv3634922 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1035460 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1053281 CNV gain 25217958
nsv976844 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for PTGR2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 52.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.13; 22.99% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PTGR2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PTGR2
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
PTGR2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGR2 Gene

Disorders for PTGR2 Gene

Additional Disease Information for PTGR2

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Atlas
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform

No disorders were found for PTGR2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PTGR2 Gene

Publications for PTGR2 Gene

  1. Cloning and characterization of a novel splicing variant of the ZADH1 gene. (PMID: 15004468) Zhang L … Huo K (Cytogenetic and genome research 2003) 3 4 22
  2. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson SL … O'Brien SJ (PloS one 2010) 3 40
  3. Structural basis for catalytic and inhibitory mechanisms of human prostaglandin reductase PTGR2. (PMID: 19000823) Wu YH … Wang AH (Structure (London, England : 1993) 2008) 3 4
  4. Identification of a novel prostaglandin reductase reveals the involvement of prostaglandin E2 catabolism in regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation. (PMID: 17449869) Chou WL … Chang ZF (The Journal of biological chemistry 2007) 2 3
  5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4

Products for PTGR2 Gene

Sources for PTGR2 Gene