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Aliases for PTGES2 Gene

Aliases for PTGES2 Gene

  • Prostaglandin E Synthase 2 2 3 3 5
  • Prostaglandin-H(2) E-Isomerase 3 4
  • MPGE Synthase-2 3 4
  • C9orf15 3 4
  • MPGES-2 3 4
  • PGES2 3 4
  • Gamma-Interferon-Activated Transcriptional Element-Binding Factor 1 3
  • Membrane-Associated Prostaglandin E Synthase 2 3
  • Membrane-Associated Prostaglandin E Synthase-2 4
  • Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-2 3
  • Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase 2 4
  • Chromosome 9 Open Reading Frame 15 2
  • GATE-Binding Factor 1 3
  • EC 4
  • GBF-1 3
  • GBF1 3

External Ids for PTGES2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PTGES2 Gene

  • C9orf15

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTGES2 Gene

  • GC09M121997
  • GC09M122529
  • GC09M124336
  • GC09M126259
  • GC09M127962
  • GC09M129922
  • GC09M130882
  • GC09M100497

Summaries for PTGES2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PTGES2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane-associated prostaglandin E synthase, which catalyzes the conversion of prostaglandin H2 to prostaglandin E2. This protein also has been shown to activate the transcription regulated by a gamma-interferon-activated transcription element (GATE). Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

GeneCards Summary for PTGES2 Gene

PTGES2 (Prostaglandin E Synthase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGES2 include Bladder Papillary Transitional Cell Neoplasm and Urinary Tract Papillary Transitional Cell Benign Neoplasm. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Arachidonic acid metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include heme binding and lyase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGES2 Gene

  • Isomerase that catalyzes the conversion of PGH2 into the more stable prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).

Gene Wiki entry for PTGES2 Gene

Additional gene information for PTGES2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PTGES2 Gene

Genomics for PTGES2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PTGES2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PTGES2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH09J128124 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 +1.6 1568 4.5 HDGF MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 PTGES2 PTGES2-AS1 RPL12 SNORA65 FPGS ZNF79 URM1 ENSG00000234055 CIZ1 GOLGA2
GH09J128096 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 17 +27.6 27589 9 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK FOXA2 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 SLC25A25 NAIF1 PTGES2 CIZ1 ZNF79 PTGES2-AS1 NUP188 SLC25A25-AS1 LCN2 C9orf16
GH09J128090 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 EPDnew ENCODE dbSUPER 12.5 +35.2 35225 5.3 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 FOXA2 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A YY1 TCF12 POLR2B SLC25A25 ENSG00000230536 GC09P128094 SLC25A25-AS1 PTGES2-AS1 PTGES2 NAIF1 ENSG00000230848 LCN2 C9orf16
GH09J128049 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 5.7 +77.0 77037 3.7 MEIS2 TFAP4 PKNOX1 ESRRA SAP130 ARID4B FEZF1 THRB ZSCAN9 ZNF335 SLC25A25-AS1 PTGES2 ENSG00000230848 FAM102A
GH09J128097 Enhancer 0.4 ENCODE dbSUPER 12.5 +32.2 32219 0 ENSG00000230536 GC09P128094 SLC25A25-AS1 PTGES2-AS1 PTGES2 NAIF1 SLC25A25 LCN2 C9orf16 DNM1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PTGES2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PTGES2 gene promoter:
  • STAT3
  • PPAR-gamma1
  • PPAR-gamma2
  • Tal-1
  • E47

Genomic Locations for PTGES2 Gene

Genomic Locations for PTGES2 Gene
7,770 bases
Minus strand
7,770 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PTGES2 Gene

Genes around PTGES2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PTGES2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PTGES2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTGES2 Gene

Proteins for PTGES2 Gene

  • Protein details for PTGES2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Prostaglandin E synthase 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q53EW9
    • Q5SYV6
    • Q96GI0
    • Q96GL2

    Protein attributes for PTGES2 Gene

    377 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    41943 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. May interact with CEBPB (By similarity). Interacts with EXOSC10.
    • Sequence=CAI13822.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for PTGES2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PTGES2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at posLast=141141
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PTGES2 Gene

Domains & Families for PTGES2 Gene

Gene Families for PTGES2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PTGES2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the GST superfamily.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTGES2: view

Function for PTGES2 Gene

Molecular function for PTGES2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Isomerase that catalyzes the conversion of PGH2 into the more stable prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
(5Z,13E)-(15S)-9-alpha,11-alpha-epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate = (5Z,13E)-(15S)-11-alpha,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dienoate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Isomerase activity is increased by sulfhydril compounds. Dithiothreitol (DTT) is most effective, followed by dihydrolipoic acid, glutathione (GSH) and 2-mercaptoethanol.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PTGES2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTGES2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003677 DNA binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0009055 electron transfer activity IEA --
GO:0015035 protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0016829 lyase activity ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGES2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTGES2: view

Animal Models for PTGES2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTGES2:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for PTGES2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PTGES2

Clone Products

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PTGES2 Gene

Localization for PTGES2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGES2 Gene

Golgi apparatus membrane; Single-pass membrane protein.
Prostaglandin E synthase 2 truncated form: Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Note=Synthesized as a Golgi membrane-bound protein, which is further cleaved into the predominant soluble truncated form. The truncated form is cytoplasmic and is enriched in the perinuclear region. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:12835322}.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTGES2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 5
extracellular 4
lysosome 4
golgi apparatus 4
peroxisome 2
nucleus 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTGES2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane IEA --
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA,IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGES2: view

Pathways & Interactions for PTGES2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTGES2: view

Pathways by source for PTGES2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q9H7Z7-PGES2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Lipid metabolism; prostaglandin biosynthesis.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTGES2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001516 prostaglandin biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006631 fatty acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006633 fatty acid biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006693 prostaglandin metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGES2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PTGES2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PTGES2 Gene

(5) Drugs for PTGES2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Flurbiprofen Approved, Investigational Pharma Channel blocker 56
Suprofen Approved, Withdrawn Pharma 0
Dinoprostone Approved Pharma activates the PGE2 receptor, Major endogenous prostanoid 99
Mesalamine Pharma 169

(3) Additional Compounds for PTGES2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Prostaglandin H2
  • (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9alpha,11alpha-Epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate
  • (5Z,13E,15S)-9alpha,11alpha-Epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate
  • (5Z,9alpha,11alpha,13E,15S)-9,11-Epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-Oic acid
  • 9,11-epoxymethano-PGH2
  • PGH2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTGES2: view

Transcripts for PTGES2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PTGES2 Gene

Prostaglandin E synthase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTGES2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d ^ 9a · 9b · 9c · 9d ^
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - -
SP6: - - - -
SP7: - -
SP8: - - -
SP9: - - - - - - -
SP10: -
SP11: - - -
SP13: - - -

ExUns: 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11a · 11b
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP8: -

Relevant External Links for PTGES2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PTGES2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PTGES2 Gene

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PTGES2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PTGES2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PTGES2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTGES2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PTGES2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed. Expressed in the heart, including apex, inter-ventricular septum, both atria and ventricles, but not in the aorta. Also expressed in fetal heart. Detected in various regions of the brain: cerebellum; occipital, frontal and parietal lobes. Also expressed in the lymph nodes, skeletal muscle, kidney and trachea, but not in the thymus or lung. Overexpressed in colorectal cancer.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PTGES2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Lung(4.5)
  • Liver(4.2)
  • Muscle(2.1)
  • Heart(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PTGES2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PTGES2 Gene

Orthologs for PTGES2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for PTGES2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTGES2 34 33
  • 99.12 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTGES2 34 33
  • 88.26 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTGES2 34 33
  • 86.9 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptges2 16 34 33
  • 83.07 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ptges2 33
  • 83.07 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PTGES2 34
  • 77 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTGES2 34
  • 53 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PTGES2 34 33
  • 71.7 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PTGES2 34
  • 72 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ptges2 33
  • 69.31 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.24945 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ptgesl 34 33
  • 63.36 (n)
zgc56527 33
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.5924 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Su(P) 34 33
  • 54.06 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP004992 33
  • 53.68 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea R11A8.5 34 33
  • 52.54 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G42150 33
  • 54.91 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os04g0244400 33
  • 56.99 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.5225 34
  • 44 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PTGES2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PTGES2 Gene

Gene Tree for PTGES2 (if available)
Gene Tree for PTGES2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PTGES2: view image

Paralogs for PTGES2 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for PTGES2 Gene

Variants for PTGES2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PTGES2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000258062 -- 128,122,013(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1000262039 -- 128,125,481(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1000421357 -- 128,120,655(-) T/C downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000515000 -- 128,129,091(-) C/G/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001042743 -- 128,126,970(-) G/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTGES2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv471324 CNV gain 18288195
nsv615383 CNV loss 21841781
nsv6723 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv818724 CNV loss 17921354
nsv951769 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for PTGES2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 31.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.67; 65.87% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PTGES2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGES2 Gene

Disorders for PTGES2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for PTGES2 Gene - From: HGMD and DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
bladder papillary transitional cell neoplasm
  • urinary bladder papillary urothelial neoplasm
urinary tract papillary transitional cell benign neoplasm
  • inverted papilloma of urinary tract
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for PTGES2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTGES2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PTGES2 Gene

Publications for PTGES2 Gene

  1. Association analysis between the prostaglandin E synthase 2 R298H polymorphism and body mass index in 8079 participants of the KORA study cohort. (PMID: 19371221) Fischer A … Illig T (Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers 2009) 3 22 44 58
  2. Association of prostaglandin E synthase 2 (PTGES2) Arg298His polymorphism with type 2 diabetes in two German study populations. (PMID: 17566096) Nitz I … Illig T (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2007) 3 22 44 58
  3. Prostaglandin E synthase 2 (PTGES2) Arg298His polymorphism and parameters of the metabolic syndrome. (PMID: 17979097) Lindner I … Schrezenmeir J (Molecular nutrition & food research 2007) 3 22 44 58
  4. Essential 110Cys in active site of membrane-associated prostaglandin E synthase-2. (PMID: 12804604) Watanabe K … Ohmiya Y (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003) 3 4 22 58
  5. Cellular prostaglandin E2 production by membrane-bound prostaglandin E synthase-2 via both cyclooxygenases-1 and -2. (PMID: 12835322) Murakami M … Kudo I (The Journal of biological chemistry 2003) 3 4 22 58

Products for PTGES2 Gene

Sources for PTGES2 Gene

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