The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane-associated prostaglandin E synthase, which catalyzes the conversion of prostaglandin H2 to prostaglandin E2. This protein also has been shown to activate the transcription regulated by a gamma-interferon-activated transcription element (GATE). Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009... See more...

Aliases for PTGES2 Gene

Aliases for PTGES2 Gene

  • Prostaglandin E Synthase 2 2 3 4 5
  • Prostaglandin-H(2) E-Isomerase 3 4
  • MPGE Synthase-2 3 4
  • EC 5.3.99.3 4 51
  • C9orf15 3 4
  • MPGES-2 3 4
  • PGES2 3 4
  • Gamma-Interferon-Activated Transcriptional Element-Binding Factor 1 3
  • Membrane-Associated Prostaglandin E Synthase 2 3
  • Membrane-Associated Prostaglandin E Synthase-2 4
  • Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-2 3
  • Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase 2 4
  • Chromosome 9 Open Reading Frame 15 2
  • GATE-Binding Factor 1 3
  • FLJ14038 2
  • PTGES2 5
  • GBF-1 3
  • GBF1 3

External Ids for PTGES2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PTGES2 Gene

  • C9orf15

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTGES2 Gene

  • GC09M121997
  • GC09M122529
  • GC09M124336
  • GC09M126259
  • GC09M127962
  • GC09M129922
  • GC09M130882
  • GC09M100497

Summaries for PTGES2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PTGES2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane-associated prostaglandin E synthase, which catalyzes the conversion of prostaglandin H2 to prostaglandin E2. This protein also has been shown to activate the transcription regulated by a gamma-interferon-activated transcription element (GATE). Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

GeneCards Summary for PTGES2 Gene

PTGES2 (Prostaglandin E Synthase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGES2 include Colorectal Cancer. Among its related pathways are Eicosanoid Synthesis and Arachidonic acid metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include heme binding and lyase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PTGES2 Gene

  • Isomerase that catalyzes the conversion of PGH2 into the more stable prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).

Gene Wiki entry for PTGES2 Gene

Additional gene information for PTGES2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PTGES2 Gene

Genomics for PTGES2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for PTGES2 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PTGES2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PTGES2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PTGES2 gene promoter:
  • E47
  • PPAR-gamma1
  • PPAR-gamma2
  • STAT3
  • Tal-1

Genomic Locations for PTGES2 Gene

Genomic Locations for PTGES2 Gene
chr9:128,120,693-128,128,462
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
7,770 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr9:130,882,972-130,890,741
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
7,770 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PTGES2 Gene

Genes around PTGES2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PTGES2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PTGES2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTGES2 Gene

Proteins for PTGES2 Gene

  • Protein details for PTGES2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9H7Z7-PGES2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Prostaglandin E synthase 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q9H7Z7
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q53EW9
    • Q5SYV6
    • Q96GI0
    • Q96GL2

    Protein attributes for PTGES2 Gene

    Size:
    377 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    41943 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. May interact with CEBPB (By similarity). Interacts with EXOSC10.

neXtProt entry for PTGES2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PTGES2 Gene

Q9H7Z7:
  • YRKVPIL
  • QLNDSSVIISALKTY
  • LTLYQYKTCPFCSKVRAFLD
  • PNLADLAV

Post-translational modifications for PTGES2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys141
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for PTGES2 Gene

Gene Families for PTGES2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PTGES2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 2 (PGES2_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9H7Z7

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PGES2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily.
Family:
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTGES2: view

Function for PTGES2 Gene

Molecular function for PTGES2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Isomerase that catalyzes the conversion of PGH2 into the more stable prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=prostaglandin H2 = prostaglandin E2; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:12893, ChEBI:CHEBI:57405, ChEBI:CHEBI:606564; EC=5.3.99.3; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:12804604, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18198127};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Isomerase activity is increased by sulfhydril compounds. Dithiothreitol (DTT) is most effective, followed by dihydrolipoic acid, glutathione (GSH) and 2-mercaptoethanol.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PTGES2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PTGES2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTGES2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003677 DNA binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0009055 electron transfer activity IEA --
GO:0015035 protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0016829 lyase activity ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGES2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTGES2: view

Animal Models for PTGES2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTGES2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for PTGES2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PTGES2

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PTGES2

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PTGES2 Gene

Localization for PTGES2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGES2 Gene

Golgi apparatus membrane. Single-pass membrane protein.
[Prostaglandin E synthase 2 truncated form]: Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Note=Synthesized as a Golgi membrane-bound protein, which is further cleaved into the predominant soluble truncated form. The truncated form is cytoplasmic and is enriched in the perinuclear region. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:12835322}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTGES2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 5
extracellular 4
lysosome 4
golgi apparatus 4
nucleus 3
plasma membrane 2
peroxisome 2
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTGES2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane IEA --
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005623 cell IEA --
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGES2: view

Pathways & Interactions for PTGES2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTGES2: view

Pathways by source for PTGES2 Gene

2 KEGG pathways for PTGES2 Gene
2 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathways for PTGES2 Gene
  • Neurophysiological process PGE2-induced pain processing
  • Prostaglandin 2 biosynthesis and metabolism FM

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q9H7Z7-PGES2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Lipid metabolism; prostaglandin biosynthesis.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTGES2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001516 prostaglandin biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006631 fatty acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006633 fatty acid biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006693 prostaglandin metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGES2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PTGES2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PTGES2 Gene

(5) Drugs for PTGES2 Gene - From: ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Flurbiprofen Approved, Investigational Pharma Channel blocker 70
Suprofen Approved, Withdrawn Pharma 0
Dinoprostone Approved Pharma activates the PGE2 receptor, Major endogenous prostanoid 137
Mesalamine Pharma 175

(3) Additional Compounds for PTGES2 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Prostaglandin H2
  • (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9alpha,11alpha-Epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate
  • (5Z,13E,15S)-9alpha,11alpha-Epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate
  • (5Z,9alpha,11alpha,13E,15S)-9,11-Epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-Oic acid
  • 9,11-epoxymethano-PGH2
  • PGH2
42935-17-1

(3) ApexBio Compounds for PTGES2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Flurbiprofen 5104-49-4
Mesalamine 89-57-6
Suprofen 40828-46-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTGES2: view

Transcripts for PTGES2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PTGES2 Gene

5 REFSEQ mRNAs :
17 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
14 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PTGES2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTGES2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d ^ 9a · 9b · 9c · 9d ^
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - -
SP6: - - - -
SP7: - -
SP8: - - -
SP9: - - - - - - -
SP10: -
SP11: - - -
SP12:
SP13: - - -
SP14:

ExUns: 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11a · 11b
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8: -
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:
SP14:

Relevant External Links for PTGES2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PTGES2

Expression for PTGES2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PTGES2 Gene

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PTGES2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PTGES2 Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PTGES2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTGES2 Gene:

Hs.495219

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PTGES2 Gene:

Q9H7Z7-PGES2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Widely expressed. Expressed in the heart, including apex, inter-ventricular septum, both atria and ventricles, but not in the aorta. Also expressed in fetal heart. Detected in various regions of the brain: cerebellum; occipital, frontal and parietal lobes. Also expressed in the lymph nodes, skeletal muscle, kidney and trachea, but not in the thymus or lung. Overexpressed in colorectal cancer.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PTGES2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Lung(4.6)
  • Liver(4.4)
  • Heart(2.9)
  • Muscle(2.7)
  • Kidney(2.5)
  • Intestine(2.4)
  • Blood(2.3)
  • Skin(2.3)
  • Spleen(2.3)
  • Stomach(2.3)
  • Lymph node(2.2)
  • Pancreas(2.2)
  • Bone marrow(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PTGES2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PTGES2 Gene

Orthologs for PTGES2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for PTGES2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTGES2 30 31
  • 99.12 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTGES2 30 31
  • 88.26 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTGES2 30 31
  • 86.9 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptges2 30 17 31
  • 83.07 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ptges2 30
  • 83.07 (n)
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PTGES2 31
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTGES2 31
  • 53 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PTGES2 30 31
  • 71.7 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PTGES2 31
  • 72 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ptges2 30
  • 69.31 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.24945 30
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ptgesl 30 31
  • 63.36 (n)
OneToOne
zgc56527 30
Rainbow Trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.5924 30
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Su(P) 30 31
  • 54.06 (n)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP004992 30
  • 53.68 (n)
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea R11A8.5 30 31
  • 52.54 (n)
OneToOne
Thale Cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G42150 30
  • 54.91 (n)
Rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os04g0244400 30
  • 56.99 (n)
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.5225 31
  • 44 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for PTGES2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PTGES2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PTGES2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PTGES2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PTGES2: view image

Paralogs for PTGES2 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for PTGES2 Gene

Variants for PTGES2 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PTGES2 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 09 pos Variation AA Info Type
709943 Benign: not provided 128,123,014(-) C/G MISSENSE_VARIANT
rs13283456 - p.Arg298His

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for PTGES2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTGES2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv471324 CNV gain 18288195
nsv615383 CNV loss 21841781
nsv6723 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv818724 CNV loss 17921354
nsv951769 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for PTGES2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 31.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.67; 65.87% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PTGES2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PTGES2
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PTGES2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGES2 Gene

Disorders for PTGES2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for PTGES2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
colorectal cancer
  • crc
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for PTGES2

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTGES2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PTGES2 Gene

Publications for PTGES2 Gene

  1. Association analysis between the prostaglandin E synthase 2 R298H polymorphism and body mass index in 8079 participants of the KORA study cohort. (PMID: 19371221) Fischer A … Illig T (Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers 2009) 3 23 41
  2. Association of prostaglandin E synthase 2 (PTGES2) Arg298His polymorphism with type 2 diabetes in two German study populations. (PMID: 17566096) Nitz I … Illig T (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2007) 3 23 41
  3. Prostaglandin E synthase 2 (PTGES2) Arg298His polymorphism and parameters of the metabolic syndrome. (PMID: 17979097) Lindner I … Schrezenmeir J (Molecular nutrition & food research 2007) 3 23 41
  4. Essential 110Cys in active site of membrane-associated prostaglandin E synthase-2. (PMID: 12804604) Watanabe K … Ohmiya Y (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003) 3 4 23
  5. Cellular prostaglandin E2 production by membrane-bound prostaglandin E synthase-2 via both cyclooxygenases-1 and -2. (PMID: 12835322) Murakami M … Kudo I (The Journal of biological chemistry 2003) 3 4 23

Products for PTGES2 Gene

  • Signalway ELISA kits for PTGES2
  • Signalway Proteins for PTGES2

Sources for PTGES2 Gene