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Aliases for PTGES Gene

Aliases for PTGES Gene

  • Prostaglandin E Synthase 2 3 3 5
  • Microsomal Glutathione S-Transferase 1-Like 1 2 3 4
  • Tumor Protein P53 Inducible Protein 12 2 3
  • Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 2 3
  • Glutathione S-Transferase 1-Like 1 2 3
  • P53-Induced Gene 12 Protein 3 4
  • MGST1-Like 1 2 3
  • MGST1-L1 3 4
  • MPGES-1 3 4
  • MGST1L1 3 4
  • PIG12 3 4
  • PGES 3 4
  • Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase 1 4
  • P53-Induced Apoptosis Protein 12 3
  • P53-Induced Gene 12 2
  • EC 4
  • MGST-IV 3
  • TP53I12 3
  • PP1294 3
  • MPGES1 4
  • MPGES 3
  • PP102 3

External Ids for PTGES Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PTGES Gene

  • MGST1L1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTGES Gene

  • GC09M123615
  • GC09M124147
  • GC09M125954
  • GC09M127876
  • GC09M129580
  • GC09M131540
  • GC09M132500
  • GC09M102099

Summaries for PTGES Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PTGES Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a glutathione-dependent prostaglandin E synthase. The expression of this gene has been shown to be induced by proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 beta (IL1B). Its expression can also be induced by tumor suppressor protein TP53, and may be involved in TP53 induced apoptosis. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this gene may contribute to the pathogenesis of collagen-induced arthritis and mediate acute pain during inflammatory responses. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PTGES Gene

PTGES (Prostaglandin E Synthase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGES include Arthritis and Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Arachidonic acid metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include glutathione binding and prostaglandin-E synthase activity. An important paralog of this gene is MGST1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGES Gene

  • Catalyzes the oxidoreduction of prostaglandin endoperoxide H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).

Gene Wiki entry for PTGES Gene

Additional gene information for PTGES Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PTGES Gene

Genomics for PTGES Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PTGES Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PTGES Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH09J129748 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 670.5 +26.1 26082 5.4 SIN3A BRCA1 ZNF121 ZNF143 FOS DEK SP3 SMARCB1 ZNF623 MAFF PTGES TOR1A GC09M129739
GH09J129776 Enhancer 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 650.7 -0.1 -148 2.5 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT NEUROD1 SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF2 ZNF766 E2F8 ZNF143 PTGES TOR1A USP20 TOR1B C9orf78 EXOSC2 SPOUT1 PRRX2-AS1 PRRX2 ASB6
GH09J129775 Enhancer 0.7 FANTOM5 dbSUPER 650.7 +1.7 1681 0.2 NFIC NFIB ZFP36 PRDM10 ZIC2 PTGES TOR1B USP20 C9orf78 CRAT FNBP1 GC09M129739
GH09J129693 Enhancer 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.8 +77.7 77732 11.8 ATF1 ARNT SIN3A GLIS2 E2F8 FOS SP3 SMARCA4 GLIS1 KDM1A PIR44517 PRRX2 ASB6 ENSG00000234789 PTGES TOR1A C9orf78 USP20 C9orf50 PRRX2-AS1
GH09J129724 Enhancer 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.4 +51.2 51193 2.7 HDAC1 RB1 KLF14 ZNF2 BRCA1 RAD21 RFX5 ZNF335 GLIS2 E2F8 PRRX2 PTGES TOR1B ASB6 ENSG00000234789 TOR1A USP20 C9orf78 C9orf50 PRRX2-AS1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PTGES on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PTGES gene promoter:
  • STAT3
  • AML1a

Genomic Locations for PTGES Gene

Genomic Locations for PTGES Gene
38,997 bases
Minus strand
14,735 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PTGES Gene

Genes around PTGES on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PTGES Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PTGES Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTGES Gene

Proteins for PTGES Gene

  • Protein details for PTGES Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Prostaglandin E synthase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O14900
    • Q5SZC0

    Protein attributes for PTGES Gene

    152 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    17102 Da
    Name=glutathione; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57925;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotrimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PTGES Gene

neXtProt entry for PTGES Gene

Post-translational modifications for PTGES Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PTGES Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PTGES Gene

Domains & Families for PTGES Gene

Gene Families for PTGES Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PTGES Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the MAPEG family.
  • Belongs to the MAPEG family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTGES: view

Function for PTGES Gene

Molecular function for PTGES Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the oxidoreduction of prostaglandin endoperoxide H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
(5Z,13E)-(15S)-9-alpha,11-alpha-epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate = (5Z,13E)-(15S)-11-alpha,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dienoate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By p53/TP53.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PTGES Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PTGES Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTGES Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004364 glutathione transferase activity IBA --
GO:0016853 isomerase activity IEA --
GO:0043295 glutathione binding IDA 18682561
GO:0050220 prostaglandin-E synthase activity IDA,EXP 18682561
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGES: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTGES: view

Animal Models for PTGES Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTGES:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PTGES

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PTGES

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PTGES Gene

Localization for PTGES Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGES Gene

Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTGES gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
extracellular 3
nucleus 3
cytosol 3
peroxisome 2
plasma membrane 1
mitochondrion 1
lysosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTGES Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005641 nuclear envelope lumen IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IBA --
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane TAS 10377395
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGES: view

Pathways & Interactions for PTGES Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTGES: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTGES Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001516 prostaglandin biosynthetic process IDA 18682561
GO:0002526 acute inflammatory response IEA --
GO:0002544 chronic inflammatory response IEA --
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006631 fatty acid metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGES: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PTGES Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PTGES Gene

(14) Drugs for PTGES Gene - From: PharmGKB, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor 459
Flurbiprofen Approved, Investigational Pharma Channel blocker 56
Suprofen Approved, Withdrawn Pharma 0
Dinoprostone Approved Pharma activates the PGE2 receptor, Major endogenous prostanoid 99
Glutathione Approved, Investigational Nutra 0

(14) Additional Compounds for PTGES Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Prostaglandin H2
  • (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9alpha,11alpha-Epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate
  • (5Z,13E,15S)-9alpha,11alpha-Epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate
  • (5Z,9alpha,11alpha,13E,15S)-9,11-Epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-Oic acid
  • 9,11-epoxymethano-PGH2
  • PGH2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTGES: view

Transcripts for PTGES Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PTGES Gene

Unigene Clusters for PTGES Gene

Prostaglandin E synthase:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PTGES

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTGES Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PTGES Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PTGES Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PTGES Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PTGES Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Skin - Not Sun Exposed (Suprapubic) (x4.6) and Skin - Sun Exposed (Lower leg) (x4.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PTGES Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Nasal epithelium (60.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PTGES Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PTGES Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTGES Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PTGES Gene

  • Pancreas(4.1)
  • Heart(3)
  • Nervous system(2.5)
  • Lung(2.4)
  • Intestine(2.3)
  • Blood(2.2)
  • Kidney(2)
  • Muscle(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PTGES: view

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PTGES Gene

Orthologs for PTGES Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PTGES Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTGES 34 33
  • 99.12 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTGES 34 33
  • 88.81 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTGES 34 33
  • 88.38 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptges 16 34 33
  • 83.33 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ptges 33
  • 82.46 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PTGES 34
  • 67 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTGES 34
  • 63 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PTGES 34 33
  • 74.13 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PTGES 34
  • 72 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ptges 33
  • 69.01 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.19439 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ptges 34 33
  • 66.17 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Mgstl 34
  • 34 (a)
CG33178 34
  • 30 (a)
CG33177 34
  • 28 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PTGES was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PTGES Gene

Gene Tree for PTGES (if available)
Gene Tree for PTGES (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PTGES: view image

Paralogs for PTGES Gene

Paralogs for PTGES Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PTGES Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PTGES: view

Variants for PTGES Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PTGES Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000061343 -- 129,754,033(-) C/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000089082 -- 129,740,978(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1000134821 -- 129,754,180(-) C/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000176886 -- 129,762,719(-) G/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000198075 -- 129,776,530(-) CA/CACA genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTGES Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1511e214 CNV gain 21293372
esv3621839 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1046477 CNV gain 25217958
nsv6728 CNV deletion 18451855

Variation tolerance for PTGES Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 1.35; 26.73% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PTGES Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGES Gene

Disorders for PTGES Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for PTGES Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • inflammatory disorder of joint
necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
  • acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis
  • periodontitis, juvenile
bartter syndrome, type 3
  • barts3
amphetamine abuse
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PTGES in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PTGES

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTGES: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PTGES Gene

Publications for PTGES Gene

  1. Genetic variation in prostaglandin E2 synthesis and signaling, prostaglandin dehydrogenase, and the risk of colorectal adenoma. (PMID: 20086108) Poole EM … Ulrich CM (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2010) 3 22 44 58
  2. Common polymorphisms in the prostaglandin pathway genes and their association with breast cancer susceptibility and survival. (PMID: 19276290) Abraham JE … Pharoah PD (Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2009) 3 22 44 58
  3. Variation in eicosanoid genes, non-fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. (PMID: 19046748) Lemaitre RN … Psaty BM (Atherosclerosis 2009) 3 22 44 58
  4. Joint effect between regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, variants in inflammatory genes and risk of lymphoma. (PMID: 18038187) Hoeft B … Nieters A (Cancer causes & control : CCC 2008) 3 22 44 58
  5. Genetic analysis of 22 candidate genes for hypertension in the Japanese population. (PMID: 15167446) Iwai N … Shioji K (Journal of hypertension 2004) 3 22 44 58

Products for PTGES Gene

Sources for PTGES Gene

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