This gene encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor that is preferentially expressed in CD4+ effector T helper 2 (Th2) cells. This protein is a prostaglandin D2 receptor that mediates the pro-inflammatory chemotaxis of eosinophils, basophils, and Th2 lymphocytes generated during allergic inflammation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3' UTR of this gene have been associated wi... See more...

Aliases for PTGDR2 Gene

Aliases for PTGDR2 Gene

  • Prostaglandin D2 Receptor 2 2 3 4 5
  • Chemoattractant Receptor Homologous Molecule Expressed On T Helper Type 2 Cells 2 3
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor 44 3 4
  • GPR44 3 4
  • CRTH2 3 4
  • DL1R 3 4
  • Chemoattractant Receptor-Homologous Molecule Expressed On TH2 Cells 3
  • Chemoattractant Receptor-Homologous Molecule Expressed On Th2 Cells 4
  • Putative G-Protein Coupled Receptor 44 3
  • G Protein-Coupled Receptor 44 2
  • CD294 Antigen 4
  • CD294 3
  • DP2 3

External Ids for PTGDR2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PTGDR2 Gene

  • GPR44

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTGDR2 Gene

  • GC11M060619

Summaries for PTGDR2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PTGDR2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor that is preferentially expressed in CD4+ effector T helper 2 (Th2) cells. This protein is a prostaglandin D2 receptor that mediates the pro-inflammatory chemotaxis of eosinophils, basophils, and Th2 lymphocytes generated during allergic inflammation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3' UTR of this gene have been associated with asthma susceptibility.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PTGDR2 Gene

PTGDR2 (Prostaglandin D2 Receptor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGDR2 include Eosinophilic Pustular Folliculitis and Folliculitis. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G protein-coupled receptor activity and prostaglandin F receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is LTB4R2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PTGDR2 Gene

  • Receptor for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). Coupled to the G(i)-protein. Receptor activation may result in pertussis toxin-sensitive decreases in cAMP levels and Ca(2+) mobilization. PI3K signaling is also implicated in mediating PTGDR2 effects. PGD2 induced receptor internalization. CRTH2 internalization can be regulated by diverse kinases such as, PKC, PKA, GRK2, GPRK5/GRK5 and GRK6. Receptor activation is responsible, at least in part, in immune regulation and allergic/inflammation responses.

Gene Wiki entry for PTGDR2 Gene

Additional gene information for PTGDR2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PTGDR2 Gene

Genomics for PTGDR2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PTGDR2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PTGDR2 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PTGDR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for PTGDR2 Gene

Genomic Locations for PTGDR2 Gene
chr11:60,850,925-60,855,971
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
5,047 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr11:60,618,398-60,623,444
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
5,047 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PTGDR2 Gene

Genes around PTGDR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PTGDR2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PTGDR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTGDR2 Gene

Proteins for PTGDR2 Gene

  • Protein details for PTGDR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9Y5Y4-PD2R2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Prostaglandin D2 receptor 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q9Y5Y4
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O94765
    • Q4QRI6

    Protein attributes for PTGDR2 Gene

    Size:
    395 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    43268 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAD21055.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAD21055.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=375; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PTGDR2 Gene

neXtProt entry for PTGDR2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PTGDR2 Gene

Other Protein References for PTGDR2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PTGDR2 Gene

Domains & Families for PTGDR2 Gene

Gene Families for PTGDR2 Gene

HGNC:
IUPHAR :
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • CD markers
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for PTGDR2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PTGDR2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (GPR44_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9Y5Y4

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PD2R2_HUMAN :
  • The 330-DSEL-333 motif is involved in the recycling of PTGDR2 to the cell surface after agonist-induced internalization. This motif seems to be required for GRK2 and GPRK5/GRK5 to promote agonist-induced internalization. Thr-347 is a major site for PKC-induced internalization of the receptor.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
Domain:
  • The 330-DSEL-333 motif is involved in the recycling of PTGDR2 to the cell surface after agonist-induced internalization. This motif seems to be required for GRK2 and GPRK5/GRK5 to promote agonist-induced internalization. Thr-347 is a major site for PKC-induced internalization of the receptor.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTGDR2: view

Function for PTGDR2 Gene

Molecular function for PTGDR2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). Coupled to the G(i)-protein. Receptor activation may result in pertussis toxin-sensitive decreases in cAMP levels and Ca(2+) mobilization. PI3K signaling is also implicated in mediating PTGDR2 effects. PGD2 induced receptor internalization. CRTH2 internalization can be regulated by diverse kinases such as, PKC, PKA, GRK2, GPRK5/GRK5 and GRK6. Receptor activation is responsible, at least in part, in immune regulation and allergic/inflammation responses.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PTGDR2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTGDR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001785 prostaglandin J receptor activity IEA --
GO:0004930 G protein-coupled receptor activity IDA,TAS 11208866
GO:0004956 prostaglandin D receptor activity IEA,IDA 11208866
GO:0004958 prostaglandin F receptor activity IEA --
GO:0042277 peptide binding IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGDR2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTGDR2: view

Animal Models for PTGDR2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTGDR2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PTGDR2

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PTGDR2

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PTGDR2 Gene

Localization for PTGDR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGDR2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Note=Internalized receptors colocalized with RAB11A. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17207480}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTGDR2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTGDR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS,IBA 21873635
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGDR2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PTGDR2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PTGDR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTGDR2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTGDR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006935 chemotaxis IDA,IEA 11208866
GO:0006955 immune response TAS 9973380
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007193 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGDR2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PTGDR2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PTGDR2 Gene

(31) Drugs for PTGDR2 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Indomethacin Approved, Investigational Pharma Partial agonist, Agonist, Full agonist, Inhibition, Inhibitor, Target, other/unknown, inhibitor Cox inhibitor 141
Sulindac Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, antagonist Anti-inflammatory agent;COX inhibitor 37
Alprostadil Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, agonist 89
Dinoprost Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, agonist 15
Dinoprostone Approved Pharma Target, agonist activates the PGE2 receptor, Major endogenous prostanoid 121

(9) Additional Compounds for PTGDR2 Gene - From: IUPHAR and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF<sub>2alpha</sub>
Full agonist, Agonist
15-deoxy-Delta<sup>12,14</sup>-PGJ<sub>2</sub>
Full agonist, Agonist
Delta<sup>12</sup>-PGJ<sub>2</sub>
Full agonist, Agonist
PGF<sub>2alpha</sub>
Full agonist, Agonist

(2) ApexBio Compounds for PTGDR2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AZD1981 CRTh2 antagonist,potent and selective 802904-66-1
OC000459 Antagonist of D prostanoid receptor 2 ,potent and selective 851723-84-7, 950688-14-9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTGDR2: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for PTGDR2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PTGDR2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(6) Additional mRNA sequences :
(58) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PTGDR2

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTGDR2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PTGDR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PTGDR2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PTGDR2

Expression for PTGDR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PTGDR2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PTGDR2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Colon - Transverse (x7.2), Stomach (x5.9), Heart - Left Ventricle (x4.5), and Brain - Putamen (basal ganglia) (x4.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PTGDR2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adipocyte (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PTGDR2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PTGDR2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PTGDR2 Gene:

PTGDR2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTGDR2 Gene:

Hs.299567

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PTGDR2 Gene:

Q9Y5Y4-PD2R2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Widespread expression. High expression in stomach, small intestine, heart and thymus. Intermediate expression in colon, spinal cord and peripheral blood and low expression in brain, skeletal muscle and spleen. Expressed also on Th2- and Tc2- type cells, eosinophils and basophils.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PTGDR2 Gene

  • Blood(4.4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PTGDR2: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PTGDR2 Gene

Orthologs for PTGDR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PTGDR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GPR44 32
  • 99.41 (n)
PTGDR2 33
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GPR44 32
  • 86.92 (n)
CRTH2 33
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GPR44 32
  • 86.63 (n)
PTGDR2 33
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gpr44 33 32
  • 81.97 (n)
OneToOne
Ptgdr2 17
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ptgdr2 32
  • 81.44 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PTGDR2 33
  • 76 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PTGDR2 33
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii AL954173.1 33
  • 21 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for PTGDR2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PTGDR2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PTGDR2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PTGDR2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PTGDR2: view image

Paralogs for PTGDR2 Gene

(12) SIMAP similar genes for PTGDR2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • PD2R2_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PTGDR2: view

Variants for PTGDR2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PTGDR2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000303945 -- 60,857,777(-) C/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000406199 -- 60,851,281(-) T/C 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1000906031 -- 60,856,385(-) G/C upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001253340 -- 60,856,161(-) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001395839 -- 60,853,743(-) G/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTGDR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv952456 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for PTGDR2 Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 2.81; 47.67% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PTGDR2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PTGDR2
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PTGDR2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGDR2 Gene

Disorders for PTGDR2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(9) MalaCards diseases for PTGDR2 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
eosinophilic pustular folliculitis
  • eosinophilic folliculitis
folliculitis
mikulicz disease
  • igg4-related dacryoadenitis and sialadenitis
dermatitis, atopic
  • atod
nasal cavity disease
  • disorder of nasal cavity
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for PTGDR2

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTGDR2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PTGDR2 Gene

Publications for PTGDR2 Gene

  1. Discovery of three novel orphan G-protein-coupled receptors. (PMID: 10036181) Marchese A … O'dowd BF (Genomics 1999) 2 3 4 56
  2. Selective expression of a novel surface molecule by human Th2 cells in vivo. (PMID: 9973380) Nagata K … Takano S (Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1999) 3 4 23 56
  3. Characterization of C-terminal tail determinants involved in CRTH2 receptor trafficking: identification of a recycling motif. (PMID: 20035740) Roy SJ … Parent JL (European journal of pharmacology 2010) 3 4 56
  4. Indomethacin-induced reduction in CRTH2 in eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (Ofuji's disease): a proposed mechanism of action. (PMID: 20107720) Satoh T … Yokozeki H (Acta dermato-venereologica 2010) 3 23 56
  5. Expression and characterization of PGD2 receptors in chronic rhinosinusitis: modulation of DP and CRTH2 by PGD2. (PMID: 18802357) Yamamoto M … Nishizaki K (International archives of allergy and immunology 2009) 3 23 56

Products for PTGDR2 Gene

Sources for PTGDR2 Gene