This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. The receptors are seven-pass transmembrane proteins that respond to extracellular cues and activate intracellular signal transduction pathways. This protein is reported to be a receptor for prostaglandin D2, which is a mediator of allergic inflammation and aller... See more...

Aliases for PTGDR Gene

Aliases for PTGDR Gene

  • Prostaglandin D2 Receptor 2 3 4 5
  • PGD2 Receptor 3 4
  • PTGDR1 2 3
  • DP1 2 3
  • DP 2 3
  • Prostanoid DP Receptor 4
  • PGD Receptor 4
  • ASRT1 3
  • PTGDR 5
  • AS1 3

External Ids for PTGDR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTGDR Gene

  • GC14P050057
  • GC14P046530
  • GC14P050724
  • GC14P051804
  • GC14P052734
  • GC14P032895

Summaries for PTGDR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PTGDR Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. The receptors are seven-pass transmembrane proteins that respond to extracellular cues and activate intracellular signal transduction pathways. This protein is reported to be a receptor for prostaglandin D2, which is a mediator of allergic inflammation and allergic airway inflammation in asthma. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GeneCards Summary for PTGDR Gene

PTGDR (Prostaglandin D2 Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTGDR include Asthma-Related Traits 1 and Asthma. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G protein-coupled receptor activity and prostaglandin D receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is PTGER2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PTGDR Gene

  • Receptor for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). The activity of this receptor is mainly mediated by G(s) proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase, resulting in an elevation of intracellular cAMP. A mobilization of calcium is also observed, but without formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (By similarity). Involved in PLA2G3-dependent maturation of mast cells. PLA2G3 is secreted by immature mast cells and acts on nearby fibroblasts upstream to PTDGS to synthesize PGD2, which in turn promotes mast cell maturation and degranulation via PTGDR (By similarity).

Tocris Summary for PTGDR Gene

  • Prostanoid receptors are activated by the endogenous ligands prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGE2, PGF2alpha, PGH2, prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxane A2. Cyclooxygenase (COX) converts arachidonic acid to PGH2, from which the other prostaglandins are synthesized.

Gene Wiki entry for PTGDR Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PTGDR Gene

Genomics for PTGDR Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for PTGDR Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH14J052267 Promoter/Enhancer 1.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 269.4 +1.4 1444 3 SIN3A TAF1 EZH2 POLR2A PTGDR HSALNG0101276 PTGER2
GH14J052266 Enhancer 0.5 FANTOM5 ENCODE 269.4 -0.6 -639 1 NR2F2 PTGDR PTGER2 lnc-NID2-4 NID2
GH14J051843 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 7.9 -420.4 -420425 5.7 BCLAF1 SP1 ZNF207 POLR2A BCL11A CTCF SIN3A TRIM22 IRF4 ELF1 GNG2 lnc-RTRAF-2 RTRAF PTGDR PTGER2 lnc-NID2-7
GH14J052279 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 14.9 +12.8 12845 2.2 CEBPB MAX ZNF217 EP300 CTBP1 RAD21 SMC3 STAT3 NFE2 SPI1 PTGDR PTGER2 HSALNG0101276 lnc-PTGDR-2
GH14J052029 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 10.7 -235.6 -235555 5 ZNF316 NFE2 ZFP91 MAFK MAFG MAFF NFE2L2 ZNF366 ZNF512 EP300 piR-48759-086 PTGDR RTRAF NID2 GNPNAT1 LOC105378180
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PTGDR on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PTGDR

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PTGDR gene promoter:
  • AML1a
  • c-Rel
  • Egr-2
  • Egr-3
  • GR
  • GR-alpha
  • HEN1
  • IRF-7A
  • MIF-1
  • Nkx2-5

Genomic Locations for PTGDR Gene

Latest Assembly
chr14:52,267,256-52,276,724
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
9,469 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Previous Assembly
chr14:52,734,416-52,743,442
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
9,027 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

chr14:52,734,431-52,743,442
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
9,012 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PTGDR Gene

Genes around PTGDR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PTGDR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PTGDR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTGDR Gene

Proteins for PTGDR Gene

  • Protein details for PTGDR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q13258-PD2R_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Prostaglandin D2 receptor
    Protein Accession:
    Q13258
    Secondary Accessions:
    • G3V5L3
    • Q13250
    • Q13251
    • Q1ZZ52

    Protein attributes for PTGDR Gene

    Size:
    359 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    40271 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for PTGDR Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PTGDR Gene

Post-translational modifications for PTGDR Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn10, Asn90, and Asn297
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PTGDR Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PTGDR Gene

Domains & Families for PTGDR Gene

Gene Families for PTGDR Gene

HGNC:
IUPHAR :
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for PTGDR Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Prostaglandin D receptor signature

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PTGDR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Prostanoid DP receptor (PD2R_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q13258

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PD2R_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTGDR: view

Function for PTGDR Gene

Molecular function for PTGDR Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). The activity of this receptor is mainly mediated by G(s) proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase, resulting in an elevation of intracellular cAMP. A mobilization of calcium is also observed, but without formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (By similarity). Involved in PLA2G3-dependent maturation of mast cells. PLA2G3 is secreted by immature mast cells and acts on nearby fibroblasts upstream to PTDGS to synthesize PGD2, which in turn promotes mast cell maturation and degranulation via PTGDR (By similarity).

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PTGDR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTGDR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G protein-coupled receptor activity IEA --
GO:0004956 prostaglandin D receptor activity NAS 7642548
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 20959461
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGDR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTGDR: view

Animal Models for PTGDR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTGDR:

Animal Models for research

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PTGDR

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PTGDR Gene

Localization for PTGDR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGDR Gene

Cell membrane. Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTGDR gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
cytosol 2
peroxisome 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTGDR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA,TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane NAS 7642548
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGDR: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PTGDR Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PTGDR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTGDR: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PTGDR Gene

Activates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTGDR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IBA 21873635
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007204 positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration IBA 21873635
GO:0043303 mast cell degranulation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTGDR: view

Drugs & Compounds for PTGDR Gene

(53) Drugs for PTGDR Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Iloprost Approved, Investigational Pharma Agonist, Full agonist Prostacyclin (PGI2) analog, Others 97
Nedocromil Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, unknown 5
Laropiprant Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Pharma DP1 receptor antagonist,potent and selective 0
Misoprostol Approved Pharma 444
Dinoprostone Approved Pharma activates the PGE2 receptor, Major endogenous prostanoid 150

(10) Additional Compounds for PTGDR Gene - From: Novoseek and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
(+-)-Cloprostenol sodium salt
55028-72-3

(5) Tocris Compounds for PTGDR Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
(+-)-Cloprostenol sodium salt Water-soluble PGF2alpha analog and potent FP receptor agonist 55028-72-3
BMY 45778 Non-prostanoid prostacyclin IP receptor partial agonist 152575-66-1
Iloprost Prostacyclin (PGI2) analog 78919-13-8
Prostaglandin E2 Major endogenous prostanoid 363-24-6
U 46619 Potent, stable thromboxane A2 (TP) receptor agonist 56985-40-1

(18) ApexBio Compounds for PTGDR Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
(+)-Fluprostenol 54276-17-4
(±)-Cloprostenol sodium salt 55028-72-3
BMY 45778 Type I IL-1 receptor antagonist 152575-66-1
GW 627368 439288-66-1
L-161,982 147776-06-5
L-655,240 103253-15-2
L-670,596 121083-05-4
L-798,106 244101-02-8
Laropiprant DP1 receptor antagonist,potent and selective 571170-77-9
Misoprostol 59122-46-2
NS 304 475086-01-2
PF 04418948 1078166-57-0
Prostaglandin F2α 38562-01-5
SC 51089 146033-02-5
SC 51322 146032-79-3
Sulprostone 60325-46-4
TCS 2510 346673-06-1
U 46619 selective agonist of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2)/thromboxane A2 (TxA2) (TP) receptor 56985-40-1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTGDR: view

Drug products for research

Transcripts for PTGDR Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PTGDR Gene

2 REFSEQ mRNAs :
5 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PTGDR

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTGDR Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b
SP1:
SP2: -

Relevant External Links for PTGDR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PTGDR

Expression for PTGDR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PTGDR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PTGDR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Colon - Transverse (x8.6), Whole Blood (x7.0), and Spleen (x4.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PTGDR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PTGDR Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PTGDR Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PTGDR

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTGDR Gene:

Hs.306831

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PTGDR Gene:

Q13258-PD2R_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in retinal choroid, ciliary epithelium, longitudinal and circular ciliary muscles, iris, small intestine and platelet membranes.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PTGDR Gene

  • Nervous system(4.4)
  • Intestine(4.4)
  • Blood(2.8)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PTGDR: view

Primer products for research

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PTGDR Gene

Orthologs for PTGDR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PTGDR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTGDR 29 30
  • 99.34 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTGDR 29 30
  • 85.77 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTGDR 29 30
  • 84.49 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ptgdrl 29
  • 78.25 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ptgdr 29 16 30
  • 78.06 (n)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ptgdr 29
  • 56.72 (n)
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ptger4c 30
  • 22 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for PTGDR was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PTGDR Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PTGDR (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PTGDR (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PTGDR: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for PTGDR

Paralogs for PTGDR Gene

Paralogs for PTGDR Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for PTGDR Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

  • PD2R_HUMAN
  • G3V5L3_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PTGDR: view

Variants for PTGDR Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PTGDR Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 14 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs41311442 Benign: not provided 52,267,833(+) C/Tp.Arg7Cys
NM_000953.3(PTGDR):c.19C>T (p.Arg7Cys)
MISSENSE
rs41312444 -- p.Gly198Glu
rs41312504 -- p.Glu301Ala
rs41312506 -- p.Arg332Gln

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for PTGDR Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTGDR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1044604 CNV gain 25217958
nsv819552 CNV gain 19587683
nsv832795 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for PTGDR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 71.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.12; 51.19% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PTGDR Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PTGDR
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PTGDR
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
PTGDR

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTGDR Gene

Disorders for PTGDR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(8) MalaCards diseases for PTGDR Gene - From: OMI, CVR, GTR, COP, and GCD

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
asthma-related traits 1
  • asthma-related traits, susceptibility to, 1
asthma
  • asthma, susceptibility to
spermatogenic failure 24
  • spgf24
dermatitis
  • eczema
anemia of prematurity
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PTGDR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

PD2R_HUMAN
  • Asthma-related traits 1 (ASRT1) [MIM:607277]: Asthma-related traits include clinical symptoms of asthma, such as coughing, wheezing, dyspnea, bronchial hyperresponsiveness as assessed by methacholine challenge test, serum IgE levels, atopy and atopic dermatitis. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15496624}. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variants affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for PTGDR

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Atlas
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTGDR: view

No data available for Genatlas for PTGDR Gene

Publications for PTGDR Gene

  1. Role of prostanoid DP receptor variants in susceptibility to asthma. (PMID: 15496624) Oguma T … Lilly CM (The New England journal of medicine 2004) 3 4 22 40 72
  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of the human prostanoid DP receptor. (PMID: 7642548) Boie Y … Abramovitz M (The Journal of biological chemistry 1995) 2 3 4 22
  3. Prostanoid DP receptor (PTGDR) variants in mothers with post-coital associated preterm births: preliminary observations. (PMID: 19710676) Grisaru-Granovsky S … Schimmel MS (Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association 2010) 3 22 40
  4. PTGDR is not a major candidate gene for asthma and atopy in Chinese children. (PMID: 19220773) Leung TF … Chan JC (Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 2009) 3 22 40
  5. Clinical studies of the DP1 antagonist laropiprant in asthma and allergic rhinitis. (PMID: 19748656) Philip G … Reiss TF (The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 2009) 3 22 40

Products for PTGDR Gene

Sources for PTGDR Gene