The protein encoded by this gene induces proliferation, migration, and fenestration (the formation of membrane discontinuities) in capillary endothelial cells derived from endocrine glands. It has little or no effect on a variety of other endothelial and non-endothelial cell types. Its expression is restricted to the steroidogenic glands (ovary, testis, adrenal, and placenta), ... See more...

Aliases for PROK1 Gene

Aliases for PROK1 Gene

  • Prokineticin 1 2 3 5
  • Mambakine 2 3 4
  • Endocrine-Gland-Derived Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor 3 4
  • Black Mamba Toxin-Related Protein 2 3
  • Prokineticin-1 3 4
  • EG-VEGF 3 4
  • EGVEGF 2 3
  • PRK1 2 3
  • PK1 2 3
  • PROK1 5

External Ids for PROK1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PROK1 Gene

  • GC01P111410
  • GC01P109860
  • GC01P110095
  • GC01P110292
  • GC01P110705
  • GC01P110994
  • GC01P108865

Summaries for PROK1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PROK1 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene induces proliferation, migration, and fenestration (the formation of membrane discontinuities) in capillary endothelial cells derived from endocrine glands. It has little or no effect on a variety of other endothelial and non-endothelial cell types. Its expression is restricted to the steroidogenic glands (ovary, testis, adrenal, and placenta), is induced by hypoxia, and often complementary to the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), suggesting that these molecules function in a coordinated manner. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PROK1 Gene

PROK1 (Prokineticin 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PROK1 include Ectopic Pregnancy and Placental Insufficiency. Among its related pathways are Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include growth factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is PROK2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PROK1 Gene

  • Potently contracts gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle. Induces proliferation, migration and fenestration (the formation of membrane discontinuities) in capillary endothelial cells derived from endocrine glands. Has little or no effect on a variety of other endothelial and non-endothelial cell types. Induces proliferation and differentiation, but not migration, of enteric neural crest cells. Directly influences neuroblastoma progression by promoting the proliferation and migration of neuroblastoma cells. Positively regulates PTGS2 expression and prostaglandin synthesis. May play a role in placentation. May play a role in normal and pathological testis angiogenesis.

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PROK1 Gene

Genomics for PROK1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for PROK1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J110451 Promoter 0.6 EPDnew 259.4 0.0 -19 0.1 MCM5 ZBTB17 EZH2 PROK1 RBM15 CEPT1 DRAM2 GNAI3 piR-41245-016 LAMTOR5
GH01J110449 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl 250.7 -0.9 -948 0.8 CEBPB RXRA TAL1 HNF4A REST SP1 CBFA2T3 CEBPG PROK1 SLC16A4 LAMTOR5-AS1 piR-41245-016 LAMTOR5
GH01J110421 Enhancer 1.3 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 30.5 -22.8 -22800 19.9 NCOR1 IKZF1 CEBPA NFIC ZIC2 CEBPB REST DEK BHLHE40 FEZF1 RF00017-253 PROK1 LAMTOR5-AS1 SLC16A4 RBM15 RBM15-AS1 KCNC4 LINC02586 LAMTOR5 CD53
GH01J110406 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 18.4 -43.4 -43411 3.5 BCLAF1 SP1 ZNF207 IKZF1 MYC ZNF600 SIX5 SSRP1 ZNF580 ZNF592 SLC16A4 HSALNG0005973 LAMTOR5 RF00017-252 PROK1 CEPT1 ENSG00000258634 DRAM2 LAMTOR5-AS1 MN308772
GH01J110383 Promoter/Enhancer 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 22.6 -66.4 -66435 3.1 BCL11A GABPA CUX1 ZNF316 EBF1 CBFB SMARCA5 NFE2 SPI1 POLR2A PROK1 RBM15 SLC16A4 LAMTOR5 RBM15-AS1 LAMTOR5-AS1 STRIP1 CD53 lnc-LAMTOR5-1 HSALNG0005977
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PROK1 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PROK1

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PROK1 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • Arnt
  • ATF-2
  • c-Jun
  • HEN1
  • HNF-1
  • HNF-1A
  • TBP
  • USF-1
  • USF1

Genomic Locations for PROK1 Gene

Latest Assembly
chr1:110,451,149-110,457,358
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
6,210 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Previous Assembly
chr1:110,993,771-110,999,980
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
6,210 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

chr1:110,993,822-110,999,976
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
6,155 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PROK1 Gene

Genes around PROK1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PROK1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PROK1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PROK1 Gene

Proteins for PROK1 Gene

  • Protein details for PROK1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P58294-PROK1_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Prokineticin-1
    Protein Accession:
    P58294
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5VWD4
    • Q8TC69

    Protein attributes for PROK1 Gene

    Size:
    105 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    11715 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for PROK1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PROK1 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PROK1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PROK1 Gene

Domains & Families for PROK1 Gene

Gene Families for PROK1 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for PROK1 Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Prokineticin

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PROK1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Mambakine (PROK1_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P58294

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PROK1_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the AVIT (prokineticin) family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the AVIT (prokineticin) family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PROK1: view

Function for PROK1 Gene

Molecular function for PROK1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Potently contracts gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle. Induces proliferation, migration and fenestration (the formation of membrane discontinuities) in capillary endothelial cells derived from endocrine glands. Has little or no effect on a variety of other endothelial and non-endothelial cell types. Induces proliferation and differentiation, but not migration, of enteric neural crest cells. Directly influences neuroblastoma progression by promoting the proliferation and migration of neuroblastoma cells. Positively regulates PTGS2 expression and prostaglandin synthesis. May play a role in placentation. May play a role in normal and pathological testis angiogenesis.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PROK1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PROK1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001664 G protein-coupled receptor binding IBA 21873635
GO:0008083 growth factor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PROK1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PROK1: view

Animal Models for research

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PROK1

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PROK1

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PROK1 Gene

Localization for PROK1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PROK1 Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PROK1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 2
plasma membrane 1
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PROK1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IBA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PROK1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PROK1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PROK1 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for PROK1 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
.85
.85
.84
.84
.74
.72
.66
.65
.64
.62
.61
.60
.57
.57
2 GPCR Pathway
.73
.73
.62
.59
.58
.58
.55
3 ERK Signaling
.61
.61
.58
.51
.49
4 Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency
.61
.61
.59
.48
5 CREB Pathway
.68
.68
.63
.50
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PROK1: view

Pathways by source for PROK1 Gene

54 Qiagen pathways for PROK1 Gene
  • 14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling
  • Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases
  • Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
  • Activation of PKA through GPCR
  • Activation of PKC through GPCR

SIGNOR curated interactions for PROK1 Gene

Activates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PROK1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000187 activation of MAPK activity IBA 21873635
GO:0001525 angiogenesis IEA --
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007623 circadian rhythm IBA 21873635
GO:0008284 positive regulation of cell proliferation IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PROK1: view

Drugs & Compounds for PROK1 Gene

(2) Drugs for PROK1 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(2) Additional Compounds for PROK1 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PROK1: view

Transcripts for PROK1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PROK1 Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
5 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
1 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PROK1

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PROK1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PROK1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PROK1

Expression for PROK1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PROK1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

  • Testis (Reproductive System)
  • Ovary (Reproductive System)

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PROK1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Ovary (x27.4) and Testis (x8.2).

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PROK1

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PROK1 Gene:

Hs.514793

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PROK1 Gene:

P58294-PROK1_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Localizes to glandular epithelium, stroma and vascular epithelial cells of first trimester decidua (at protein level). Up-regulated in first trimester decidua when compared with non-pregnant endometrium. Expressed in the steroidogenic glands, ovary, testis, adrenal and placenta.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PROK1: view

Primer products for research

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners , Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PROK1 Gene

Orthologs for PROK1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PROK1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PROK1 29 30
  • 99.37 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PROK1 29 30
  • 89.52 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PROK1 29 30
  • 87.3 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Prok1 29
  • 86.67 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Prok1 29 16 30
  • 84.44 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PROK1 30
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PROK1 30
  • 81 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PROK1 29 30
  • 72.06 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PROK1 30
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia prok1 29
  • 68.25 (n)
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii prok1 29 30
  • 68.98 (n)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for PROK1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PROK1 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PROK1 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PROK1 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PROK1: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for PROK1

Paralogs for PROK1 Gene

Paralogs for PROK1 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PROK1 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • PROK1_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PROK1: view

Variants for PROK1 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PROK1 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs142388637 Benign: not provided 110,454,050(+) G/T
NM_032414.3(PROK1):c.162G>T (p.Gly54=)
SYNONYMOUS
rs7514102 -- p.Val67Ile

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for PROK1 Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Variation tolerance for PROK1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 64.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 7.60; 82.64% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PROK1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PROK1
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PROK1
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
PROK1

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PROK1 Gene

Disorders for PROK1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for PROK1 Gene - From: COP and GCD

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
ectopic pregnancy
  • eccyesis
placental insufficiency
  • uteroplacental vascular insufficiency
neuroblastoma
  • nb
kallmann syndrome
  • familial hypogonadism with anosmia
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PROK1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PROK1

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Atlas
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PROK1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PROK1 Gene

Publications for PROK1 Gene

  1. Prokineticin 1 signaling and gene regulation in early human pregnancy. (PMID: 18339712) Evans J … Jabbour HN (Endocrinology 2008) 3 4 22
  2. Implications of endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor/prokineticin-1 signaling in human neuroblastoma progression. (PMID: 17289879) Ngan ES … Tam PK (Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2007) 3 4 22
  3. Human endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor: expression early in development and in Leydig cell tumors suggests roles in normal and pathological testis angiogenesis. (PMID: 15292351) Samson M … Ferrara N (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2004) 3 4 22
  4. Identification of an angiogenic mitogen selective for endocrine gland endothelium. (PMID: 11528470) LeCouter J … Ferrara N (Nature 2001) 3 4 22
  5. Identification of two prokineticin cDNAs: recombinant proteins potently contract gastrointestinal smooth muscle. (PMID: 11259612) Li M … Zhou QY (Molecular pharmacology 2001) 2 3 4

Products for PROK1 Gene

Sources for PROK1 Gene