Protamines substitute for histones in the chromatin of sperm during the haploid phase of spermatogenesis, and are the major DNA-binding proteins in the nucleus of sperm in many vertebrates. They package the sperm DNA into a highly condensed complex in a volume less than 5% of a somatic cell nucleus. Many mammalian species have only one protamine (protamine 1); however, a few sp... See more...

Aliases for PRM2 Gene

Aliases for PRM2 Gene

  • Protamine 2 2 3 5
  • Cancer/Testis Antigen Family 94, Member 2 2 3
  • Sperm Protamine P2 3 4
  • Sperm Histone P2 3 4
  • Protamine-2 3 4
  • CT94.2 2 3
  • Testicular Secretory Protein Li 40 3
  • PRM2 5

External Ids for PRM2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRM2 Gene

  • GC16M011143
  • GC16M011520
  • GC16M011335
  • GC16M011276
  • GC16M011369
  • GC16M011287
  • GC16M011283
  • GC16M011288
  • GC16M011299
  • GC16M011311
  • GC16M011281
  • GC16M011319
  • GC16M011291
  • GC16M011295

Summaries for PRM2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PRM2 Gene

  • Protamines substitute for histones in the chromatin of sperm during the haploid phase of spermatogenesis, and are the major DNA-binding proteins in the nucleus of sperm in many vertebrates. They package the sperm DNA into a highly condensed complex in a volume less than 5% of a somatic cell nucleus. Many mammalian species have only one protamine (protamine 1); however, a few species, including human and mouse, have two. This gene encodes protamine 2, which is cleaved to give rise to a family of protamine 2 peptides. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have also been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]

GeneCards Summary for PRM2 Gene

PRM2 (Protamine 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PRM2 include Male Infertility and Infertility.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PRM2 Gene

  • Protamines substitute for histones in the chromatin of sperm during the haploid phase of spermatogenesis. They compact sperm DNA into a highly condensed, stable and inactive complex.

Additional gene information for PRM2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PRM2 Gene

Genomics for PRM2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for PRM2 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PRM2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PRM2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PRM2 gene promoter:
  • AML1a
  • AP-1
  • Bach1
  • Brachyury
  • Evi-1
  • HEN1
  • Ik-2
  • MIF-1
  • STAT3

Genomic Locations for PRM2 Gene

Genomic Locations for PRM2 Gene
chr16:11,275,639-11,276,480
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
842 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr16:11,369,493-11,370,337
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
845 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PRM2 Gene

Genes around PRM2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PRM2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PRM2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PRM2 Gene

Proteins for PRM2 Gene

  • Protein details for PRM2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P04554-PRM2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Protamine-2
    Protein Accession:
    P04554
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q6ZMM0

    Protein attributes for PRM2 Gene

    Size:
    102 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    13051 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with TDRP.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PRM2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PRM2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PRM2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PRM2 Gene

  • Proteolytic processing into mature chains is required for histone eviction during spermatogenesis. Transition proteins (TNP1 and TNP2) are required for processing.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PRM2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PRM2 Gene

Domains & Families for PRM2 Gene

Gene Families for PRM2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for PRM2 Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Protamine 2, PRM2
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PRM2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Sperm protamine P2 (D2K905_HUMAN)
  • Sperm protamine P2 (PRM2_HUMAN)
  • cDNA, FLJ92059, highly similar to Homo sapiens protamine 2 (PRM2), mRNA (Q1LZN1_HUMAN)
  • cDNA FLJ16831 fis, clone TESTI2046536 (Q6ZMM0_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P04554

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PRM2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the protamine P2 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protamine P2 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PRM2: view

Function for PRM2 Gene

Molecular function for PRM2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Protamines substitute for histones in the chromatin of sperm during the haploid phase of spermatogenesis. They compact sperm DNA into a highly condensed, stable and inactive complex.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
protamine 2

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PRM2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003677 DNA binding TAS,IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI --
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding IDA 2243113
GO:0046870 cadmium ion binding IDA 2243113
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRM2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PRM2: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PRM2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PRM2 Gene

Localization for PRM2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRM2 Gene

Nucleus. Chromosome.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PRM2 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytoskeleton 2
plasma membrane 1
extracellular 1
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
cytosol 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000786 nucleosome IEA --
GO:0005634 nucleus IBA 21873635
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS 2081589
GO:0005694 chromosome IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRM2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PRM2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PRM2 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for PRM2 Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for PRM2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PRM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006323 DNA packaging TAS 2081589
GO:0006997 nucleus organization IBA 21873635
GO:0007275 multicellular organism development IEA --
GO:0007283 spermatogenesis TAS,ISS --
GO:0007286 spermatid development IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRM2: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for PRM2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PRM2 Gene

(1) Drugs for PRM2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PRM2: view

Transcripts for PRM2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PRM2 Gene

5 REFSEQ mRNAs :
14 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PRM2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRM2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d · 2e · 2f
SP1: - - - -
SP2: -
SP3: - -
SP4:

Relevant External Links for PRM2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PRM2

Expression for PRM2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PRM2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PRM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x52.7).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PRM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Ovary (37.3) and Testis (31.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PRM2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PRM2 Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PRM2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PRM2 Gene:

Hs.2324

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PRM2 Gene:

P04554-PRM2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Testis.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PRM2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PRM2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PRM2 Gene

Orthologs for PRM2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of human and chimp.

Orthologs for PRM2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PRM2 31
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for PRM2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • Cow (Bos Taurus)
  • Dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Mouse (Mus musculus)
  • Oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for PRM2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PRM2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PRM2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PRM2: view image

Paralogs for PRM2 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for PRM2 Gene

Variants for PRM2 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PRM2 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 16 pos Variation AA Info Type
776978 Benign: not provided 11,276,090(-) G/A MISSENSE_VARIANT,INTRON_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for PRM2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PRM2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1040428 CNV gain 25217958
nsv510412 OTHER sequence alteration 20534489
nsv571453 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for PRM2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 46.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.26; 5.85% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PRM2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PRM2
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PRM2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRM2 Gene

Disorders for PRM2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(12) MalaCards diseases for PRM2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
male infertility
  • infertility male
infertility
azoospermia
  • spermatogenic failure
progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis
  • prms
pelvic varices
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PRM2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PRM2

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PRM2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PRM2 Gene

Publications for PRM2 Gene

  1. A common haplotype of protamine 1 and 2 genes is associated with higher sperm counts. (PMID: 19863670) Tüttelmann F … Simoni M (International journal of andrology 2010) 3 23 41
  2. Mutations in the protamine locus: association with spermatogenic failure? (PMID: 19602509) Imken L … McElreavey K (Molecular human reproduction 2009) 3 23 41
  3. Identification of novel polymorphisms in the nuclear protein genes and their relationship with human sperm protamine deficiency and severe male infertility. (PMID: 16989827) Aoki VW … Carrell DT (Fertility and sterility 2006) 3 23 41
  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the protamine-1 and -2 genes of fertile and infertile human male populations. (PMID: 12569175) Tanaka H … Nishimune Y (Molecular human reproduction 2003) 3 23 41
  5. Characterization of a human locus in transition. (PMID: 7983046) Nelson JE … Krawetz SA (The Journal of biological chemistry 1994) 3 4 23

Products for PRM2 Gene

  • Signalway ELISA kits for PRM2

Sources for PRM2 Gene