This gene encodes the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin. This secreted hormone is a growth regulator for many tissues, including cells of the immune system. It may also play a role in cell survival by suppressing apoptosis, and it is essential for lactation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 20... See more...

Aliases for PRL Gene

Aliases for PRL Gene

  • Prolactin 2 3 4 5
  • Decidual Prolactin 3
  • Growth Hormone A1 3
  • GHA1 3
  • PRL 5

External Ids for PRL Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRL Gene

  • GC06M022345
  • GC06M022395

Summaries for PRL Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PRL Gene

  • This gene encodes the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin. This secreted hormone is a growth regulator for many tissues, including cells of the immune system. It may also play a role in cell survival by suppressing apoptosis, and it is essential for lactation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PRL Gene

PRL (Prolactin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PRL include Impotence and Pituitary Gland Disease. Among its related pathways are Prolactin Signaling Pathway and PEDF Induced Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and prolactin receptor binding. An important paralog of this gene is CSH2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PRL Gene

  • Prolactin acts primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation.

Gene Wiki entry for PRL Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PRL Gene

Genomics for PRL Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for PRL Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH06J022302 Promoter/Enhancer 0.8 EPDnew Ensembl 600.7 -0.4 -404 1.4 RUNX3 ESR1 CTCF EBF1 REST IKZF1 PRL piR-43106-173 HDGFL1 CASC15
GH06J022297 Promoter 0.3 EPDnew 600.4 +5.8 5841 0.1 PRL NBAT1 lnc-PRL-16 CASC15 SOX4
GH06J022320 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 0.4 -18.6 -18604 3 NR2C1 PKNOX1 EED SP1 RUNX3 ESR1 FOS NR2F2 FOSL2 NR2F1 HDGFL1 piR-43106-173 PRL CASC15
GH06J022250 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 0.2 +53.3 53296 5.2 RFX1 REST CEBPB RAD21 SP1 JUND ZXDB CTBP1 ATF3 JUN NBAT1 lnc-PRL-16 PRL CASC15 SOX4
GH06J022362 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 0.2 -62.2 -62203 5.8 FOXA1 TCF12 SP1 YY1 EED BMI1 CTBP1 FOXA2 ZBTB33 ZNF217 piR-39098-235 piR-44727-006 LOC105374971 PRL HDGFL1 CASC15
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PRL on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PRL

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PRL gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • ATF-2
  • c-Jun
  • FOXO1
  • FOXO1a
  • IRF-1
  • NF-kappaB1
  • STAT3

Genomic Locations for PRL Gene

Genomic Locations for PRL Gene
chr6:22,287,244-22,302,897
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
15,654 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr6:22,287,475-22,303,082
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
15,608 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PRL Gene

Genes around PRL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PRL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PRL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PRL Gene

Proteins for PRL Gene

  • Protein details for PRL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P01236-PRL_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Prolactin
    Protein Accession:
    P01236
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q15199
    • Q92996

    Protein attributes for PRL Gene

    Size:
    227 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25876 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with PRLR.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=CAA38264.1; Type=Frameshift; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PRL Gene

neXtProt entry for PRL Gene

Post-translational modifications for PRL Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn59
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Biorbyt antibodies for PRL

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PRL Gene

Domains & Families for PRL Gene

Gene Families for PRL Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for PRL Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Somatotropin hormone
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PRL Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Prolactin (PRL_HUMAN)
  • Prolactin (Q5I0G2_HUMAN)
  • Prolactin (Q5THQ0_HUMAN)
  • Prolactin (Q9UP51_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P01236

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PRL_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the somatotropin/prolactin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the somatotropin/prolactin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PRL: view

Function for PRL Gene

Molecular function for PRL Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Prolactin acts primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
prolactin

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PRL Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005148 prolactin receptor binding IBA 21873635
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA,IBA 21873635
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 22325776
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRL: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PRL: view

Animal Models for PRL Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PRL:
  • Prl Prl<tm1Hmn>

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PRL

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PRL Gene

Localization for PRL Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRL Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PRL gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endosome 4
plasma membrane 3
nucleus 3
cytosol 3
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
lysosome 2
golgi apparatus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA,TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA 21873635
GO:0031904 endosome lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRL: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PRL Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PRL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PRL: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PRL Gene

Activates:
Inactivates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001937 negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IDA 23619365
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS 10854700
GO:0007565 female pregnancy IBA 21873635
GO:0007595 lactation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRL: view

Drugs & Compounds for PRL Gene

(101) Drugs for PRL Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(20) Additional Compounds for PRL Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PRL: view

Transcripts for PRL Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PRL Gene

2 REFSEQ mRNAs :
13 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PRL

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRL Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - -
SP6: -
SP7:

Relevant External Links for PRL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PRL

Expression for PRL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PRL Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PRL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pituitary (x52.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PRL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal gut (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PRL Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PRL Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PRL

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PRL Gene:

Hs.1905

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PRL Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Blood(4.1)
  • Eye(3.8)
  • Thyroid gland(3.1)
  • Adrenal gland(3.1)
  • Skin(3)
  • Liver(2.6)
  • Intestine(2.5)
  • Urine(2.5)
  • Heart(2.5)
  • Pancreas(2.5)
  • Kidney(2.5)
  • Muscle(2.4)
  • Bone(2.2)
  • Lung(2.2)
  • Stomach(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PRL: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PRL Gene

Orthologs for PRL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PRL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PRL 30 31
  • 99.27 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PRL 30 31
  • 86.34 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PRL 30 31
  • 80.32 (n)
OneToMany
-- 31
  • 43 (a)
OneToMany
-- 31
  • 42 (a)
OneToMany
PRP9 31
  • 42 (a)
OneToMany
PRP8 31
  • 40 (a)
OneToMany
-- 31
  • 39 (a)
OneToMany
PRP2 31
  • 39 (a)
OneToMany
PRP14 31
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
-- 31
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
PRP6 31
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
PRP7 31
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
CSH1 31
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
PRP1 31
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
PRP5 31
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PRL 31
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Prl 30
  • 72.41 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Prl 30 17 31
  • 71.85 (n)
OneToMany
Prl2a1 31
  • 42 (a)
OneToMany
Prl6a1 31
  • 40 (a)
OneToMany
Prl3a1 31
  • 39 (a)
OneToMany
Prl4a1 31
  • 39 (a)
OneToMany
Prl3b1 31
  • 39 (a)
OneToMany
Prl2c5 31
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
Prl7d1 31
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
Prl2c1 31
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
Prl3d1 31
  • 36 (a)
OneToMany
Prl2c3 31
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
Prl7c1 31
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
Prl3d3 31
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
Prl2c2 31
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
Prl7b1 31
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
Prl3d2 31
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
Prl5a1 31
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
Prl2b1 31
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
Prl8a1 31
  • 30 (a)
OneToMany
Prl8a2 31
  • 29 (a)
OneToMany
Prl8a6 31
  • 29 (a)
OneToMany
Prl7a1 31
  • 29 (a)
OneToMany
Prl8a8 31
  • 29 (a)
OneToMany
Prl8a9 31
  • 28 (a)
OneToMany
Prl7a2 31
  • 28 (a)
OneToMany
Prl3c1 31
  • 26 (a)
OneToMany
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PRL 31
  • 69 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PRL 30 31
  • 72.06 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PRL 31
  • 65 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia prl.1 30
  • 66.17 (n)
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii prl 31
  • 34 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for PRL was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PRL Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PRL (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PRL (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PRL: view image

Paralogs for PRL Gene

Paralogs for PRL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PRL: view

Variants for PRL Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PRL Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 06 pos Variation AA Info Type
716024 Likely Benign: not provided 22,287,456(-) G/A SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
722940 Benign: not provided 22,292,550(-) G/A SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
768067 Benign: not provided 22,292,568(-) G/A SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
782471 Benign: not provided 22,294,535(-) C/T SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for PRL Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PRL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv5924n100 CNV loss 25217958
esv3608333 CNV loss 21293372
nsv601119 CNV loss 21841781
nsv830604 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for PRL Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 35.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.81; 16.97% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PRL Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PRL
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PRL

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRL Gene

Disorders for PRL Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(186) MalaCards diseases for PRL Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
impotence
  • erectile dysfunction
pituitary gland disease
  • pituitary disease
empty sella syndrome
  • empty sella turcica
pituitary apoplexy
  • pituitary tumor apoplexy
sheehan syndrome
  • simmond's disease
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PRL in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PRL

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Tumor Gene Database
(TGDB)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PRL: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PRL Gene

Publications for PRL Gene

  1. A comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation in prolactin (PRL) and PRL receptor (PRLR) genes in relation to plasma prolactin levels and breast cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort. (PMID: 18053149) Lee SA … Stram DO (BMC medical genetics 2007) 3 23 41
  2. Association of prolactin and its receptor gene regions with familial breast cancer. (PMID: 16434456) Vaclavicek A … Försti A (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2006) 3 23 41
  3. Polymorphisms and haplotypes in the cytochrome P450 17A1, prolactin, and catechol-O-methyltransferase genes and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk. (PMID: 16214922) Skibola CF … Holly EA (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2005) 3 23 41
  4. Prolactin and prolactin receptor gene polymorphisms in multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. (PMID: 12559630) Mellai M … Momigliano-Richiardi P (Human immunology 2003) 3 23 41
  5. Genome-wide association identifies three new susceptibility loci for Paget's disease of bone. (PMID: 21623375) Albagha OM … Genetic Determinants of Paget's Disease (GDPD) Consortium (Nature genetics 2011) 3 41

Products for PRL Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for PRL
  • Biorbyt antibodies for PRL

Sources for PRL Gene