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Aliases for PRKAR2B Gene

Aliases for PRKAR2B Gene

  • Protein Kinase CAMP-Dependent Type II Regulatory Subunit Beta 2 3 5
  • Protein Kinase, CAMP-Dependent, Regulatory Subunit Type II Beta 2 3
  • Protein Kinase, CAMP-Dependent, Regulatory, Type II, Beta 2 3
  • CAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II-Beta Regulatory Subunit 3
  • CAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II-Beta Regulatory Chain 3
  • WUGSC:H_RG363E19.2 3
  • H_RG363E19.2 3
  • RII-BETA 3
  • PRKAR2 3

External Ids for PRKAR2B Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PRKAR2B Gene

  • PRKAR2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRKAR2B Gene

  • GC07P105169
  • GC07P106231
  • GC07P106245
  • GC07P106279
  • GC07P106472
  • GC07P106685
  • GC07P101045

Summaries for PRKAR2B Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PRKAR2B Gene

  • cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. This subunit has been shown to interact with and suppress the transcriptional activity of the cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) in activated T cells. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this subunit may play an important role in regulating energy balance and adiposity. The studies also suggest that this subunit may mediate the gene induction and cataleptic behavior induced by haloperidol. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PRKAR2B Gene

PRKAR2B (Protein Kinase CAMP-Dependent Type II Regulatory Subunit Beta) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PRKAR2B include Carney Complex Variant. Among its related pathways are Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts and DAG and IP3 signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein kinase binding and cAMP binding. An important paralog of this gene is PRKAR2A.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKAR2B Gene

  • Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells. Type II regulatory chains mediate membrane association by binding to anchoring proteins, including the MAP2 kinase.

Tocris Summary for PRKAR2B Gene

  • Protein kinase A (PKA, aka cAMP-dependent protein kinase) is involved in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism and is a component of the signal transduction mechanism of certain GPCRs. PKA is composed of two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits.

Gene Wiki entry for PRKAR2B Gene

Additional gene information for PRKAR2B Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PRKAR2B Gene

Genomics for PRKAR2B Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PRKAR2B Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PRKAR2B Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH07I107044 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 557.4 +2.0 1964 5.2 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF2 CBX5 E2F8 PRKAR2B COG5 ENSG00000272072 HBP1 LAMB1 CBLL1 ENSG00000273055 GPR22 GC07M107108
GH07I107166 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 4.6 +124.5 124528 5.6 CLOCK MLX FEZF1 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 HBP1 ENSG00000272072 COG5 CBLL1 ENSG00000273055 LAMB1 PRKAR2B
GH07I107017 Enhancer 0.9 dbSUPER 5.8 -26.4 -26419 1.5 PKNOX1 SMAD1 ATF1 ARNT ZNF766 FOS ATF7 REST ZNF592 ATF4 PRKAR2B PIK3CG
GH07I107067 Enhancer 0.4 ENCODE dbSUPER 12.6 +22.5 22484 0.2 PRKAR2B GC07M107108 LOC105375441
GH07I107065 Enhancer 0.4 FANTOM5 dbSUPER 12.6 +21.5 21482 0.4 PRKAR2B GPR22 GC07M107108
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around PRKAR2B on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PRKAR2B gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for PRKAR2B Gene

Genomic Locations for PRKAR2B Gene
117,163 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PRKAR2B Gene

Genes around PRKAR2B on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PRKAR2B Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PRKAR2B Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PRKAR2B Gene

Proteins for PRKAR2B Gene

  • Protein details for PRKAR2B Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-beta regulatory subunit
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4D0R9

    Protein attributes for PRKAR2B Gene

    418 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    46302 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • The inactive form of the enzyme is composed of two regulatory chains and two catalytic chains. Activation by cAMP produces two active catalytic monomers and a regulatory dimer that binds four cAMP molecules. Interacts with the phosphorylated form of PJA2. Forms a complex composed of PRKAR2B, GSK3B and GSKIP through GSKIP interaction; facilitates PKA-induced phosphorylation and regulates GSK3B activity (PubMed:25920809).

neXtProt entry for PRKAR2B Gene

Post-translational modifications for PRKAR2B Gene

Other Protein References for PRKAR2B Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PRKAR2B Gene

Domains & Families for PRKAR2B Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the cAMP-dependent kinase regulatory chain family.
  • Belongs to the cAMP-dependent kinase regulatory chain family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PRKAR2B: view

Function for PRKAR2B Gene

Molecular function for PRKAR2B Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
protein kinase,cAMP-dependent,type II,beta subunit,regulatory polypeptide
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells. Type II regulatory chains mediate membrane association by binding to anchoring proteins, including the MAP2 kinase.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PRKAR2B Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PRKAR2B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0004862 cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor activity IDA 21812984
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 17148597
GO:0008603 cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulator activity IDA 21812984
GO:0016301 kinase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKAR2B: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PRKAR2B: view

Animal Models for PRKAR2B Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PRKAR2B:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for PRKAR2B Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PRKAR2B

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PRKAR2B Gene

Localization for PRKAR2B Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKAR2B Gene

Cytoplasm. Cell membrane. Note=Colocalizes with PJA2 in the cytoplasm and at the cell membrane.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PRKAR2B gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 3
nucleus 3
golgi apparatus 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Centrosome (2)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Golgi apparatus (2)
  • Mitochondria (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PRKAR2B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA,IEA 21423175
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane IEA --
GO:0005813 centrosome IDA 21399614
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA,IDA 21423175
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKAR2B: view

Pathways & Interactions for PRKAR2B Gene

SuperPathways for PRKAR2B Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 DAG and IP3 signaling
2 Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition
3 RET signaling
4 G-Beta Gamma Signaling
5 Aquaporin-mediated transport
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PRKAR2B: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PRKAR2B Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PRKAR2B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000086 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0001932 regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0003091 renal water homeostasis TAS --
GO:0006631 fatty acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0007596 blood coagulation TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKAR2B: view

Drugs & Compounds for PRKAR2B Gene

(6) Drugs for PRKAR2B Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
cyclic amp Experimental Pharma Target 0
KT 5720 Pharma Positive, Allosteric regulator Selective protein kinase A inhibitor 0
PKA inhibitor fragment (6-22) amide Pharma Potent protein kinase A inhibitor 0
PKI 14-22 amide, myristoylated Pharma PKA inhibitor, Cell-permeable protein kinase A inhibitor 0

(1) Additional Compounds for PRKAR2B Gene - From: Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
H 89 dihydrochloride

(5) Tocris Compounds for PRKAR2B Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
cGMP Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Peptide Inhibitor of protein kinases G and A 82801-73-8
H 89 dihydrochloride Protein kinase A inhibitor 130964-39-5
KT 5720 Selective protein kinase A inhibitor 108068-98-0
PKA inhibitor fragment (6-22) amide Potent protein kinase A inhibitor 121932-06-7
PKI 14-22 amide, myristoylated Cell-permeable protein kinase A inhibitor 201422-03-9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PRKAR2B: view

Transcripts for PRKAR2B Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PRKAR2B Gene

Unigene Clusters for PRKAR2B Gene

Protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRKAR2B Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PRKAR2B Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PRKAR2B Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PRKAR2B Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PRKAR2B Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adipose - Visceral (Omentum) (x6.7) and Adipose - Subcutaneous (x5.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PRKAR2B Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Ovary (11.4), Adipocyte (9.4), and Fetal Brain (7.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for PRKAR2B Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PRKAR2B Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PRKAR2B Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PRKAR2B Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PRKAR2B Gene:

Tissue specificity: Four types of regulatory chains are found: I-alpha, I-beta, II-alpha, and II-beta. Their expression varies among tissues and is in some cases constitutive and in others inducible.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PRKAR2B Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Liver(4.2)
  • Adrenal gland(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PRKAR2B: view

Primer Products

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PRKAR2B Gene

Orthologs for PRKAR2B Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PRKAR2B Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PRKAR2B 33 34
  • 99.76 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PRKAR2B 33 34
  • 93.22 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PRKAR2B 33 34
  • 92.33 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Prkar2b 33 16 34
  • 91.11 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PRKAR2B 34
  • 91 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Prkar2b 33
  • 90.95 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PRKAR2B 34
  • 88 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PRKAR2B 33 34
  • 84.49 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PRKAR2B 34
  • 79 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia prkar2b 33
  • 76.3 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.23734 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii PRKAR2B 34
  • 74 (a)
LOC100331387 33
  • 68.03 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Pka-R2 34
  • 47 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes BCY1 34
  • 30 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.8307 34
  • 50 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PRKAR2B was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PRKAR2B Gene

Gene Tree for PRKAR2B (if available)
Gene Tree for PRKAR2B (if available)

Paralogs for PRKAR2B Gene

Paralogs for PRKAR2B Gene

(7) SIMAP similar genes for PRKAR2B Gene using alignment to 4 proteins: Pseudogenes for PRKAR2B Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PRKAR2B: view

Variants for PRKAR2B Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PRKAR2B Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000008348 -- 107,060,839(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000029448 -- 107,148,090(+) G/A intron_variant
rs1000054122 -- 107,142,562(+) C/G intron_variant
rs1000061258 -- 107,053,227(+) G/A intron_variant
rs1000077801 -- 107,142,531(+) T/G intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PRKAR2B Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv831087 CNV gain 17160897
nsv608072 CNV loss 21841781
nsv1132081 CNV deletion 24896259
esv3614454 CNV loss 21293372
esv3385600 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3309807 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv32754 CNV loss 17666407
esv2675749 CNV deletion 23128226
dgv3640n106 CNV deletion 24896259

Variation tolerance for PRKAR2B Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 22.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.51; 11.08% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PRKAR2B Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKAR2B Gene

Disorders for PRKAR2B Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for PRKAR2B Gene - From: HGMD and DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
carney complex variant
  • carney complex
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for PRKAR2B

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PRKAR2B: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PRKAR2B Gene

Publications for PRKAR2B Gene

  1. Mapping of the regulatory subunits RI beta and RII beta of cAMP-dependent protein kinase genes on human chromosome 7. (PMID: 1358799) Solberg R … de la Chapelle A (Genomics 1992) 2 3 22 58
  2. GSKIP- and GSK3-mediated anchoring strengthens cAMP/PKA/Drp1 axis signaling in the regulation of mitochondrial elongation. (PMID: 25920809) Loh JK … Hong YR (Biochimica et biophysica acta 2015) 3 4 58
  3. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies confirms a susceptibility locus for knee osteoarthritis on chromosome 7q22. (PMID: 21068099) Evangelou E … Translation Research in Europe Applied Technologies for Osteoarthritis (TreatOA) (Annals of the rheumatic diseases 2011) 3 44 58
  4. Genomewide pharmacogenomic study of metabolic side effects to antipsychotic drugs. (PMID: 20195266) Adkins DE … van den Oord EJ (Molecular psychiatry 2011) 3 44 58
  5. Control of PKA stability and signalling by the RING ligase praja2. (PMID: 21423175) Lignitto L … Feliciello A (Nature cell biology 2011) 3 4 58

Products for PRKAR2B Gene

Sources for PRKAR2B Gene

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