Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for PRKAR2A Gene

Aliases for PRKAR2A Gene

  • Protein Kinase CAMP-Dependent Type II Regulatory Subunit Alpha 2 3 5
  • Protein Kinase, CAMP-Dependent, Regulatory Subunit Type II Alpha 2 3
  • PRKAR2 3 4
  • PKR2 3 4
  • CAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II-Alpha Regulatory Subunit 3
  • CAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Regulatory Subunit RII Alpha 3
  • Protein Kinase, CAMP-Dependent, Regulatory, Type II, Alpha 2
  • Protein Kinase A, RII-Alpha Subunit 3

External Ids for PRKAR2A Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PRKAR2A Gene

  • PRKAR2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRKAR2A Gene

  • GC03M048574
  • GC03M048067
  • GC03M048746
  • GC03M048747
  • GC03M048762

Summaries for PRKAR2A Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PRKAR2A Gene

  • cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. It may interact with various A-kinase anchoring proteins and determine the subcellular localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This subunit has been shown to regulate protein transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PRKAR2A Gene

PRKAR2A (Protein Kinase CAMP-Dependent Type II Regulatory Subunit Alpha) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PRKAR2A include Kallmann Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Melanocyte Development and Pigmentation and G-protein signaling G-Protein alpha-i signaling cascades. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include ubiquitin protein ligase binding and cAMP binding. An important paralog of this gene is PRKAR2B.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKAR2A Gene

  • Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells. Type II regulatory chains mediate membrane association by binding to anchoring proteins, including the MAP2 kinase.

Tocris Summary for PRKAR2A Gene

  • Protein kinase A (PKA, aka cAMP-dependent protein kinase) is involved in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism and is a component of the signal transduction mechanism of certain GPCRs. PKA is composed of two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits.

Gene Wiki entry for PRKAR2A Gene

Additional gene information for PRKAR2A Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PRKAR2A Gene

Genomics for PRKAR2A Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PRKAR2A Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PRKAR2A Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH03J048845 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 +0.8 754 4 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF2 YY1 ZNF213 ZNF143 SP3 PRKAR2A PRKAR2A-AS1 WDR6 AMT QRICH1 ZNF589 ATRIP ENSG00000235236 IP6K2 FCF1P2
GH03J048085 Promoter/Enhancer 2.6 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.5 +759.9 759945 5.3 CLOCK FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF416 ZNF143 ZNF263 MAP4 ATRIP DHX30 ZNF589 SETD2 ENSG00000235236 PTPN23 BOLA2P2 SCAP TMEM89
GH03J049005 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 13 -159.5 -159533 3.1 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 WDR6 ATRIP QRICH1 USP19 CCDC36 ENSG00000225399 PRKAR2A IMPDH2 ENSG00000235236 ARIH2
GH03J048439 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 13 +407.1 407097 3.2 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 POLR2B E2F8 ZNF143 TMA7 CCDC51 ATRIP QRICH1 USP19 CCDC36 ENSG00000225399 NME6 SHISA5 PRKAR2A
GH03J049784 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 13 -938.7 -938714 3.2 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK SMAD1 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 IP6K1 QRICH1 CDHR4 RBM5 USP19 INKA1 CCDC36 ENSG00000225399 AMT ENSG00000235236
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PRKAR2A on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PRKAR2A gene promoter:
  • deltaCREB
  • CREB
  • AREB6
  • FOXF2
  • Egr-3
  • SRF (504 AA)
  • SRF
  • Pax-2a
  • Pax-2
  • Pax-2b

Genomic Locations for PRKAR2A Gene

Genomic Locations for PRKAR2A Gene
chr3:48,744,597-48,847,846
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
103,250 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr3:48,782,030-48,885,279
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
103,250 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PRKAR2A Gene

Genes around PRKAR2A on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PRKAR2A Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PRKAR2A Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PRKAR2A Gene

Proteins for PRKAR2A Gene

  • Protein details for PRKAR2A Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P13861-KAP2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    cAMP-dependent protein kinase type II-alpha regulatory subunit
    Protein Accession:
    P13861
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q16823
    • Q9BUB1

    Protein attributes for PRKAR2A Gene

    Size:
    404 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    45518 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • The inactive form of the enzyme is composed of two regulatory chains and two catalytic chains. Activation by cAMP produces two active catalytic monomers and a regulatory dimer that binds four cAMP molecules. Interacts with AKAP4 and CBFA2T3. Interacts with the phosphorylated form of PJA2. Interacts with MYRIP. This interaction may link PKA to components of the exocytosis machinery, thus facilitating exocytosis, including insulin release (By similarity). Forms a complex composed of PRKAR2A, GSK3B and GSKIP through GSKIP interaction; facilitates PKA-induced phosphorylation and regulates GSK3B activity (PubMed:27484798).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PRKAR2A Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PRKAR2A Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PRKAR2A Gene

Post-translational modifications for PRKAR2A Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PRKAR2A Gene

Domains & Families for PRKAR2A Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PRKAR2A Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P13861

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

KAP2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the cAMP-dependent kinase regulatory chain family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the cAMP-dependent kinase regulatory chain family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PRKAR2A: view

Function for PRKAR2A Gene

Molecular function for PRKAR2A Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells. Type II regulatory chains mediate membrane association by binding to anchoring proteins, including the MAP2 kinase.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
protein kinase,cAMP dependent,regulatory type II,alpha subunit,ubiquitously expressed,interacting with A kinase anchoring proteins,necessary for cAMP dependent modulation of ion channels

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PRKAR2A Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PRKAR2A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004862 cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor activity IDA 21812984
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 9473338
GO:0008603 cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulator activity NAS 9003463
GO:0016301 kinase activity IEA --
GO:0019904 protein domain specific binding IPI 25097019
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKAR2A: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PRKAR2A: view

Animal Models for PRKAR2A Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PRKAR2A:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for PRKAR2A Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PRKAR2A

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PRKAR2A Gene

Localization for PRKAR2A Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKAR2A Gene

Cytoplasm. Cell membrane. Note=Colocalizes with PJA2 in the cytoplasm and the cell membrane.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PRKAR2A gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 5
golgi apparatus 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Golgi apparatus (3)
  • Microtubule organizing center (3)
  • Vesicles (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PRKAR2A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm TAS,IDA 21423175
GO:0005813 centrosome IDA 21399614
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA,TAS 21423175
GO:0005925 focal adhesion HDA 21423176
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKAR2A: view

Pathways & Interactions for PRKAR2A Gene

SuperPathways for PRKAR2A Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 DAG and IP3 signaling
2 RET signaling
3 G-Beta Gamma Signaling
4 Aquaporin-mediated transport
5 Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PRKAR2A: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PRKAR2A Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PRKAR2A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001932 regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0003091 renal water homeostasis TAS --
GO:0007339 binding of sperm to zona pellucida IEA --
GO:0007596 blood coagulation TAS --
GO:0016310 phosphorylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKAR2A: view

Drugs & Compounds for PRKAR2A Gene

(6) Drugs for PRKAR2A Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, HMDB, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
cyclic amp Experimental Pharma 0
GEM-231 Investigational Pharma Target 0
KT 5720 Pharma Neutral, Allosteric regulator, Positive Selective protein kinase A inhibitor 0
cGMP Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Peptide Pharma Inhibitor of protein kinases G and A 0
PKA inhibitor fragment (6-22) amide Pharma Potent protein kinase A inhibitor 0

(1) Additional Compounds for PRKAR2A Gene - From: Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
H 89 dihydrochloride
130964-39-5

(5) Tocris Compounds for PRKAR2A Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
cGMP Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Peptide Inhibitor of protein kinases G and A 82801-73-8
H 89 dihydrochloride Protein kinase A inhibitor 130964-39-5
KT 5720 Selective protein kinase A inhibitor 108068-98-0
PKA inhibitor fragment (6-22) amide Potent protein kinase A inhibitor 121932-06-7
PKI 14-22 amide, myristoylated Cell-permeable protein kinase A inhibitor 201422-03-9

(1) ApexBio Compounds for PRKAR2A Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
KT 5720 108068-98-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PRKAR2A: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for PRKAR2A Gene

Unigene Clusters for PRKAR2A Gene

Protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRKAR2A Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12
SP1:
SP2: -
SP3: -
SP4: - -
SP5: -

Relevant External Links for PRKAR2A Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PRKAR2A
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PRKAR2A

Expression for PRKAR2A Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PRKAR2A Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PRKAR2A Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Muscle - Skeletal (x6.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PRKAR2A Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PRKAR2A Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PRKAR2A Gene:

PRKAR2A

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PRKAR2A Gene:

Hs.631923

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PRKAR2A Gene:

P13861-KAP2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Four types of regulatory chains are found: I-alpha, I-beta, II-alpha, and II-beta. Their expression varies among tissues and is in some cases constitutive and in others inducible.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PRKAR2A Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Liver(4.3)
  • Blood(4.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PRKAR2A: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PRKAR2A Gene

Orthologs for PRKAR2A Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PRKAR2A Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PRKAR2A 34
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PRKAR2A 34 33
  • 91.52 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PRKAR2A 34 33
  • 90.27 (n)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Prkar2a 16 34 33
  • 87.07 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Prkar2a 33
  • 86.36 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PRKAR2A 34
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PRKAR2A 34
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PRKAR2A 34
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
LOC100858827 33
  • 76.63 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PRKAR2A 34
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia prkar2a 33
  • 71.55 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii prkar2aa 34 33
  • 70.58 (n)
OneToMany
prkar2ab 34
  • 58 (a)
OneToMany
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.3297 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP004940 33
  • 58.49 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Pka-R2 34 33
  • 56.45 (n)
OneToMany
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E04181g 33
  • 51.64 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes BCY1 36 34 33
  • 51.38 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADL099C 33
  • 48.98 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU01166 33
  • 50.95 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.8307 34
  • 50 (a)
OneToMany
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes cgs1 33
  • 49.61 (n)
Species where no ortholog for PRKAR2A was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PRKAR2A Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PRKAR2A (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PRKAR2A (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PRKAR2A: view image

Paralogs for PRKAR2A Gene

Paralogs for PRKAR2A Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for PRKAR2A Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

  • KAP2_HUMAN
  • C9J830_HUMAN
  • H7C1L0_HUMAN
  • H7C330_HUMAN
  • H7C4A9_HUMAN
  • Q9BUB1_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PRKAR2A: view

Variants for PRKAR2A Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PRKAR2A Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000046043 -- 48,759,131(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1000056000 -- 48,751,150(-) C/A 3_prime_UTR_variant, downstream_transcript_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000068571 -- 48,757,027(-) A/C intron_variant
rs1000108747 -- 48,799,438(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1000118130 -- 48,778,470(-) C/T intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PRKAR2A Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1169569 CNV deletion 17803354
esv3434274 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3596114 CNV loss 21293372
esv3893694 CNV loss 25118596
nsv508918 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv590247 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for PRKAR2A Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 71.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.57; 44.64% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PRKAR2A Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PRKAR2A

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKAR2A Gene

Disorders for PRKAR2A Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for PRKAR2A Gene - From: GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
kallmann syndrome
  • hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for PRKAR2A

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PRKAR2A: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PRKAR2A Gene

Publications for PRKAR2A Gene

  1. The A-Kinase Anchoring Protein (AKAP) Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Interaction Protein (GSKIP) Regulates β-Catenin through Its Interactions with Both Protein Kinase A (PKA) and GSK3β. (PMID: 27484798) Dema A … Klussmann E (The Journal of biological chemistry 2016) 3 4 58
  2. Control of PKA stability and signalling by the RING ligase praja2. (PMID: 21423175) Lignitto L … Feliciello A (Nature cell biology 2011) 3 4 58
  3. Identification of neuroglycan C and interacting partners as potential susceptibility genes for schizophrenia in a Southern Chinese population. (PMID: 19367581) So HC … Sham PC (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2010) 3 44 58
  4. Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks. (PMID: 17081983) Olsen JV … Mann M (Cell 2006) 3 4 58
  5. Phosphoproteomic analysis of the human pituitary. (PMID: 16807684) Beranova-Giorgianni S … Giorgianni F (Pituitary 2006) 3 4 58

Products for PRKAR2A Gene