The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and... See more...

Aliases for PRKAB2 Gene

Aliases for PRKAB2 Gene

  • Protein Kinase AMP-Activated Non-Catalytic Subunit Beta 2 2 3 5
  • Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, Beta 2 Non-Catalytic Subunit 2 3
  • 5'-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Subunit Beta-2 3 4
  • AMPK Subunit Beta-2 3 4
  • AMPK Beta 2 2 3
  • AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Beta 2 Non-Catalytic Subunit 3
  • 5'-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase, Beta-2 Subunit 3
  • AMPK Beta-2 Chain 3

External Ids for PRKAB2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRKAB2 Gene

  • GC01M144845
  • GC01M143356
  • GC01M143971
  • GC01M144138
  • GC01M144133
  • GC01M143851
  • GC01M145093
  • GC01M146627
  • GC01M120041

Summaries for PRKAB2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PRKAB2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit may be a positive regulator of AMPK activity. It is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and thus may have tissue-specific roles. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GeneCards Summary for PRKAB2 Gene

PRKAB2 (Protein Kinase AMP-Activated Non-Catalytic Subunit Beta 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PRKAB2 include Chromosome 1Q21.1 Duplication Syndrome and Tetralogy Of Fallot. Among its related pathways are mTOR signalling and Oxytocin signaling pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and AMP-activated protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PRKAB1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PRKAB2 Gene

  • Non-catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Beta non-catalytic subunit acts as a scaffold on which the AMPK complex assembles, via its C-terminus that bridges alpha (PRKAA1 or PRKAA2) and gamma subunits (PRKAG1, PRKAG2 or PRKAG3).

Gene Wiki entry for PRKAB2 Gene

Additional gene information for PRKAB2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PRKAB2 Gene

Genomics for PRKAB2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PRKAB2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PRKAB2 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PRKAB2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PRKAB2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PRKAB2 gene promoter:
  • aMEF-2
  • AML1a
  • GATA-1
  • GR
  • GR-alpha
  • Lmo2
  • MEF-2A
  • RSRFC4
  • Spz1
  • ZIC2

Genomic Locations for PRKAB2 Gene

Genomic Locations for PRKAB2 Gene
chr1:147,155,106-147,172,589
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
17,484 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr1:146,626,685-146,644,129
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
17,445 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PRKAB2 Gene

Genes around PRKAB2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PRKAB2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PRKAB2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PRKAB2 Gene

Proteins for PRKAB2 Gene

  • Protein details for PRKAB2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O43741-AAKB2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-2
    Protein Accession:
    O43741
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K9V5
    • B4DH06
    • Q5VXY0

    Protein attributes for PRKAB2 Gene

    Size:
    272 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    30302 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • AMPK is a heterotrimer of an alpha catalytic subunit (PRKAA1 or PRKAA2), a beta (PRKAB1 or PRKAB2) and a gamma non-catalytic subunits (PRKAG1, PRKAG2 or PRKAG3).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PRKAB2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PRKAB2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PRKAB2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PRKAB2 Gene

  • Phosphorylated when associated with the catalytic subunit (PRKAA1 or PRKAA2). Phosphorylated by ULK1 and ULK2; leading to negatively regulate AMPK activity and suggesting the existence of a regulatory feedback loop between ULK1, ULK2 and AMPK.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PRKAB2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PRKAB2 Gene

Domains & Families for PRKAB2 Gene

Gene Families for PRKAB2 Gene

Protein Domains for PRKAB2 Gene

Blocks:
  • 5-AMP-activated protein kinase, beta subunit, complex-interacting region
InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PRKAB2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-2 (AAKB2_HUMAN)
  • cDNA, FLJ78904, highly similar to 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit beta-2 (B4DH06_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O43741

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

AAKB2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase beta subunit family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase beta subunit family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PRKAB2: view

Function for PRKAB2 Gene

Molecular function for PRKAB2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Non-catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Beta non-catalytic subunit acts as a scaffold on which the AMPK complex assembles, via its C-terminus that bridges alpha (PRKAA1 or PRKAA2) and gamma subunits (PRKAG1, PRKAG2 or PRKAG3).
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
protein kinase,cAMP activated,beta 2 non catalytic subunit,highly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle,complexing with alpha 2 and gamma 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PRKAB2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004679 contributes_to AMP-activated protein kinase activity IDA 21399626
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI,IEA 16306228
GO:0019901 protein kinase binding IBA 21873635
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IPI 20562859
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKAB2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PRKAB2: view

Animal Models for PRKAB2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PRKAB2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PRKAB2 Gene

Localization for PRKAB2 Gene

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PRKAB2 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 1
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PRKAB2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IBA 21873635
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA 21873635
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0031588 nucleotide-activated protein kinase complex IDA,IBA 17851531
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKAB2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKAB2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PRKAB2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PRKAB2: view

Pathways by source for PRKAB2 Gene

1 Tocris pathway for PRKAB2 Gene
3 Qiagen pathways for PRKAB2 Gene
  • AMPK Enzyme Complex Pathway
  • eNOS Signaling
  • Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for PRKAB2 Gene
1 GeneTex pathway for PRKAB2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PRKAB2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006631 fatty acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006633 fatty acid biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006853 carnitine shuttle TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKAB2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PRKAB2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PRKAB2 Gene

(15) Drugs for PRKAB2 Gene - From: DrugBank and ApexBio

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Channel blocker, Target, activator 1440
fostamatinib Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor Kinase Inhibitors 0
Topiramate Approved Pharma Transporter, inducer GluR5 receptor antagonist,anticonvulsant, GluR5 antagonist; inhibits carbonic anhydrase (CA) II and IV 273
Adenosine monophosphate Approved, Investigational Nutra Target, activator 0
Imeglimin Investigational Pharma Antidiabetic agent 0

(11) ApexBio Compounds for PRKAB2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AICAR phosphate AMPK activator 681006-28-0
Dorsomorphin AMPK inhibitor 866405-64-3
GSK621 AMPK agonist 1346607-05-3
Imeglimin Antidiabetic agent 775351-65-0
Imeglimin hydrochloride Antidiabetic agent 775351-61-6
PT 1 AMPK activator, selective 331002-70-1
RSVA 405 140405-36-3
SAMS Peptide 125911-68-4
YLF-466D 1273323-67-3
ZLN024 723249-01-2
ZLN024 hydrochloride
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PRKAB2: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for PRKAB2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PRKAB2 Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
27 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRKAB2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b · 10c
SP1: -
SP2: - -
SP3: -
SP4:

Relevant External Links for PRKAB2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PRKAB2

Expression for PRKAB2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PRKAB2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PRKAB2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Muscle - Skeletal (x6.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PRKAB2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (18.8) and Heart (6.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PRKAB2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PRKAB2 Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PRKAB2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PRKAB2 Gene:

Hs.50732

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PRKAB2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.6)
  • Liver(4.4)
  • Pancreas(4.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PRKAB2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PRKAB2 Gene

Orthologs for PRKAB2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for PRKAB2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PRKAB2 31 30
  • 99.63 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PRKAB2 31 30
  • 94.73 (n)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Prkab2 30
  • 92.13 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Prkab2 17 31 30
  • 91.27 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PRKAB2 31
  • 91 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PRKAB2 31 30
  • 90.81 (n)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PRKAB2 31
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PRKAB2 31 30
  • 79.53 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PRKAB2 31
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia prkab2 30
  • 76.12 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia prkab2-prov 30
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii prkab2 30
  • 71.72 (n)
PRKAB2 31
  • 57 (a)
OneToOne
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG8057 32
  • 58 (a)
alc 31
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea aakb-1 31 30
  • 55.09 (n)
ManyToMany
F55F3.1 32
  • 50 (a)
Y47D3A.15 32
  • 47 (a)
aakb-2 31
  • 42 (a)
ManyToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SIP2 33 31 30
  • 49.74 (n)
GAL83 31
  • 19 (a)
ManyToMany
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AKINBETA1 30
  • 49.31 (n)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os05g0491200 30
  • 49.07 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10258 31
  • 51 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for PRKAB2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PRKAB2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PRKAB2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PRKAB2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PRKAB2: view image

Paralogs for PRKAB2 Gene

Paralogs for PRKAB2 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PRKAB2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

  • AAKB2_HUMAN
  • B4DH06_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PRKAB2: view

Variants for PRKAB2 Gene

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for PRKAB2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PRKAB2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv327n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv66e199 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2761299 CNV gain+loss 21179565
nsv1003688 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1005055 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1077657 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1121713 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1132304 CNV duplication 24896259
nsv1144401 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv437047 CNV loss 16327808
nsv509457 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv510962 OTHER complex 20534489
nsv8169 CNV gain 18304495

Variation tolerance for PRKAB2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 68.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.86; 17.91% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PRKAB2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PRKAB2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PRKAB2 Gene

Disorders for PRKAB2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for PRKAB2 Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
chromosome 1q21.1 duplication syndrome
  • 1q21.1 microduplication syndrome
tetralogy of fallot
  • tof
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for PRKAB2

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PRKAB2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PRKAB2 Gene

Publications for PRKAB2 Gene

  1. Variant screening of PRKAB2, a type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility candidate gene on 1q in Pima Indians. (PMID: 12490143) Prochazka M … Bogardus C (Molecular and cellular probes 2002) 3 4 23 41 54
  2. Haplotype structures and large-scale association testing of the 5' AMP-activated protein kinase genes PRKAA2, PRKAB1, and PRKAB2 [corrected] with type 2 diabetes. (PMID: 16505254) Sun MW … Florez JC (Diabetes 2006) 3 23 41 54
  3. Structure of mammalian AMPK and its regulation by ADP. (PMID: 21399626) Xiao B … Gamblin SJ (Nature 2011) 3 4 54
  4. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 41 54
  5. Common variants in 40 genes assessed for diabetes incidence and response to metformin and lifestyle intervention in the diabetes prevention program. (PMID: 20682687) Jablonski KA … Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group (Diabetes 2010) 3 41 54

Products for PRKAB2 Gene

Sources for PRKAB2 Gene