The protein encoded by this gene is a catalytic subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and ... See more...

Aliases for PRKAA2 Gene

Aliases for PRKAA2 Gene

  • Protein Kinase AMP-Activated Catalytic Subunit Alpha 2 2 3 5
  • AMPK 2 3 4
  • 5'-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunit Alpha-2 3 4
  • Protein Kinase, AMP-Activated, Alpha 2 Catalytic Subunit 2 3
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Kinase 3 4
  • Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Kinase 3 4
  • AMPK Subunit Alpha-2 3 4
  • ACACA Kinase 3 4
  • HMGCR Kinase 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11.1 4 50
  • AMPKa2 2 3
  • AMPK2 3 4
  • 5'-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase, Catalytic Alpha-2 Chain 3
  • AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Alpha-2 Subunit Variant 2 3
  • AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Alpha-2 Subunit Variant 3 3
  • AMPK-Alpha-2 Chain 3
  • AMPK Alpha 2 3
  • EC 2.7.11.27 4
  • EC 2.7.11.31 4
  • EC 2.7.11 50
  • PRKAA2 5
  • PRKAA 3

External Ids for PRKAA2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PRKAA2 Gene

  • PRKAA

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRKAA2 Gene

  • GC01P057027
  • GC01P056025
  • GC01P056468
  • GC01P056480
  • GC01P056823
  • GC01P055223

Summaries for PRKAA2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PRKAA2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a catalytic subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. Studies of the mouse counterpart suggest that this catalytic subunit may control whole-body insulin sensitivity and is necessary for maintaining myocardial energy homeostasis during ischemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CIViC Summary for PRKAA2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for PRKAA2 Gene

PRKAA2 (Protein Kinase AMP-Activated Catalytic Subunit Alpha 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PRKAA2 include Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome and Ischemia. Among its related pathways are Apelin signaling pathway and Corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PRKAA1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PRKAA2 Gene

  • Catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Regulates lipid synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating lipid metabolic enzymes such as ACACA, ACACB, GYS1, HMGCR and LIPE; regulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis by phosphorylating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA and ACACB) and hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE) enzymes, respectively. Regulates insulin-signaling and glycolysis by phosphorylating IRS1, PFKFB2 and PFKFB3. Involved in insulin receptor/INSR internalization (PubMed:25687571). AMPK stimulates glucose uptake in muscle by increasing the translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, possibly by mediating phosphorylation of TBC1D4/AS160. Regulates transcription and chromatin structure by phosphorylating transcription regulators involved in energy metabolism such as CRTC2/TORC2, FOXO3, histone H2B, HDAC5, MEF2C, MLXIPL/ChREBP, EP300, HNF4A, p53/TP53, SREBF1, SREBF2 and PPARGC1A. Acts as a key regulator of glucose homeostasis in liver by phosphorylating CRTC2/TORC2, leading to CRTC2/TORC2 sequestration in the cytoplasm. In response to stress, phosphorylates 'Ser-36' of histone H2B (H2BS36ph), leading to promote transcription. Acts as a key regulator of cell growth and proliferation by phosphorylating TSC2, RPTOR and ATG1/ULK1: in response to nutrient limitation, negatively regulates the mTORC1 complex by phosphorylating RPTOR component of the mTORC1 complex and by phosphorylating and activating TSC2. In response to nutrient limitation, promotes autophagy by phosphorylating and activating ATG1/ULK1. In that process also activates WDR45 (PubMed:28561066). AMPK also acts as a regulator of circadian rhythm by mediating phosphorylation of CRY1, leading to destabilize it. May regulate the Wnt signaling pathway by phosphorylating CTNNB1, leading to stabilize it. Also phosphorylates CFTR, EEF2K, KLC1, NOS3 and SLC12A1. Plays an important role in the differential regulation of pro-autophagy (composed of PIK3C3, BECN1, PIK3R4 and UVRAG or ATG14) and non-autophagy (composed of PIK3C3, BECN1 and PIK3R4) complexes, in response to glucose starvation. Can inhibit the non-autophagy complex by phosphorylating PIK3C3 and can activate the pro-autophagy complex by phosphorylating BECN1 (By similarity).

Tocris Summary for PRKAA2 Gene

  • AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterodimeric protein serine/threonine kinase that is composed of alpha- (catalytic) and beta/gamma- (regulatory) subunits. AMPK acts as a sensor of the energy status of cells and ensures survival during times of cellular metabolic stress.

Gene Wiki entry for PRKAA2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PRKAA2 Gene

Genomics for PRKAA2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for PRKAA2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J056644 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 250.7 +0.4 392 3.4 ZNF600 CEBPA ZSCAN16 ZIC2 ZBTB10 ZNF341 THAP11 SAP130 RARA YY1 LOC101929935 PLPP3 PRKAA2 RF00017-201 piR-39858-023 FYB2
GH01J056572 Promoter/Enhancer 2.6 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 5 -68.1 -68084 10.3 ZNF654 ZNF600 ZNF580 ZMYM3 CEBPA ZSCAN16 POLR2A ZIC2 ZBTB10 CHD4 PLPP3 C8A FYB2 C8B RPSAP20 PRKAA2 lnc-FYB2-4 RPL23AP85 lnc-PRKAA2-9 ENSG00000284686
GH01J056676 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 11.2 +31.7 31738 2 ZNF600 JUND ZNF10 ZIC2 FEZF1 ZNF639 MAX EP300 STAT3 TBP PLPP3 PRKAA2 piR-39858-023 lnc-PRKAA2-8 RF00017-201 FYB2
GH01J056711 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl 11 +65.9 65887 2 JUND PRDM6 BHLHE40 POLR2A PKNOX1 OSR2 FOS PLPP3 PRKAA2 lnc-PRKAA2-8 piR-39858-023 RF00017-201 FYB2
GH01J056687 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 0.3 +43.2 43184 1.8 ZNF600 JUND CEBPB FEZF1 HOMEZ ZNF217 EP300 THAP11 MBD2 FOXA2 piR-39858-023 lnc-PRKAA2-8 PRKAA2 RF00017-201 FYB2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PRKAA2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PRKAA2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PRKAA2 gene promoter:
  • FOXI1
  • HFH-1
  • HFH-3
  • Nkx3-1
  • Nkx3-1 v1
  • Nkx3-1 v2
  • Nkx3-1 v3
  • Nkx3-1 v4

Genomic Locations for PRKAA2 Gene

Latest Assembly
chr1:56,645,314-56,715,335
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
70,022 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Previous Assembly
chr1:57,110,987-57,181,008
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
70,022 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

chr1:57,110,995-57,181,008
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
70,014 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PRKAA2 Gene

Genes around PRKAA2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PRKAA2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PRKAA2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PRKAA2 Gene

Proteins for PRKAA2 Gene

  • Protein details for PRKAA2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P54646-AAPK2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-2
    Protein Accession:
    P54646
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q9H1E8
    • Q9UD43

    Protein attributes for PRKAA2 Gene

    Size:
    552 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    62320 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Quaternary structure:
    • AMPK is a heterotrimer of an alpha catalytic subunit (PRKAA1 or PRKAA2), a beta (PRKAB1 or PRKAB2) and a gamma non-catalytic subunits (PRKAG1, PRKAG2 or PRKAG3). Interacts with FNIP1 and FNIP2. Associates with internalized insulin receptor/INSR complexes on Golgi/endosomal membranes; PRKAA2/AMPK2 together with ATIC and HACD3/PTPLAD1 is proposed to be part of a signaling network regulating INSR autophosphorylation and endocytosis (PubMed:25687571).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PRKAA2 Gene

neXtProt entry for PRKAA2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PRKAA2 Gene

P54646:
  • EQRSGSSTPQRSCSAAGLHRPRSS
  • IKDIREHEWFKQDLP
  • VDYCHRHMVVHRDLKPEN
  • LQVDPLKR
  • LAVAYHL
  • AEKQKHDGRV
  • YLFPEDPSY
  • LCGTLPFDD
  • VSGGELFDY
  • HPHIIKL
  • KMSLQLY
  • KIADFGLSN
  • GPEVDIWS
  • KRATIKD
  • VVHRDLK
  • RSYLLDFKS
  • KVAVKILNRQKI
  • IDNRRIMNQASEFYLASSPP
  • TSCGSPNYAAPEVISG
  • LGDTLGVGTFGK
  • LFRHPHI
  • TLGVGTFGKVK
  • RDLKPEN
  • HVPTLFKKI
  • IIKLYQV
  • AKWHLGIRSQS
  • WSCGVIL
  • VHRDLKP

Post-translational modifications for PRKAA2 Gene

  • Ubiquitinated.
  • Phosphorylated at Thr-172 by STK11/LKB1 in complex with STE20-related adapter-alpha (STRADA) pseudo kinase and CAB39. Also phosphorylated at Thr-172 by CAMKK2; triggered by a rise in intracellular calcium ions, without detectable changes in the AMP/ATP ratio. CAMKK1 can also phosphorylate Thr-172, but at much lower level. Dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2A and 2C (PP2A and PP2C). Phosphorylated by ULK1; leading to negatively regulate AMPK activity and suggesting the existence of a regulatory feedback loop between ULK1 and AMPK. Dephosphorylated by PPM1A and PPM1B at Thr-172 (mediated by STK11/LKB1).
  • Glycosylation at Asn388
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect
    • AAPK2_HUMAN (985)

Other Protein References for PRKAA2 Gene

Antibodies for research

Domains & Families for PRKAA2 Gene

Gene Families for PRKAA2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PRKAA2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • AMP-activated alpha 2 subunit (A0MZF5_HUMAN)
  • 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-2 (AAPK2_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P54646

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

AAPK2_HUMAN :
  • The AIS (autoinhibitory sequence) region shows some sequence similarity with the ubiquitin-associated domains and represses kinase activity.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. SNF1 subfamily.
Domain:
  • The AIS (autoinhibitory sequence) region shows some sequence similarity with the ubiquitin-associated domains and represses kinase activity.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. SNF1 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PRKAA2: view

Function for PRKAA2 Gene

Molecular function for PRKAA2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Regulates lipid synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating lipid metabolic enzymes such as ACACA, ACACB, GYS1, HMGCR and LIPE; regulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis by phosphorylating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA and ACACB) and hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE) enzymes, respectively. Regulates insulin-signaling and glycolysis by phosphorylating IRS1, PFKFB2 and PFKFB3. Involved in insulin receptor/INSR internalization (PubMed:25687571). AMPK stimulates glucose uptake in muscle by increasing the translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, possibly by mediating phosphorylation of TBC1D4/AS160. Regulates transcription and chromatin structure by phosphorylating transcription regulators involved in energy metabolism such as CRTC2/TORC2, FOXO3, histone H2B, HDAC5, MEF2C, MLXIPL/ChREBP, EP300, HNF4A, p53/TP53, SREBF1, SREBF2 and PPARGC1A. Acts as a key regulator of glucose homeostasis in liver by phosphorylating CRTC2/TORC2, leading to CRTC2/TORC2 sequestration in the cytoplasm. In response to stress, phosphorylates 'Ser-36' of histone H2B (H2BS36ph), leading to promote transcription. Acts as a key regulator of cell growth and proliferation by phosphorylating TSC2, RPTOR and ATG1/ULK1: in response to nutrient limitation, negatively regulates the mTORC1 complex by phosphorylating RPTOR component of the mTORC1 complex and by phosphorylating and activating TSC2. In response to nutrient limitation, promotes autophagy by phosphorylating and activating ATG1/ULK1. In that process also activates WDR45 (PubMed:28561066). AMPK also acts as a regulator of circadian rhythm by mediating phosphorylation of CRY1, leading to destabilize it. May regulate the Wnt signaling pathway by phosphorylating CTNNB1, leading to stabilize it. Also phosphorylates CFTR, EEF2K, KLC1, NOS3 and SLC12A1. Plays an important role in the differential regulation of pro-autophagy (composed of PIK3C3, BECN1, PIK3R4 and UVRAG or ATG14) and non-autophagy (composed of PIK3C3, BECN1 and PIK3R4) complexes, in response to glucose starvation. Can inhibit the non-autophagy complex by phosphorylating PIK3C3 and can activate the pro-autophagy complex by phosphorylating BECN1 (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + L-seryl-[protein] = ADP + H(+) + O-phospho-L-seryl-[protein]; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:17989, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9863, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:11604, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:29999, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:83421, ChEBI:CHEBI:456216; EC=2.7.11.1; Evidence={ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q09137};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + L-threonyl-[protein] = ADP + H(+) + O-phospho-L-threonyl-[protein]; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:46608, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:11060, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:11605, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:30013, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:61977, ChEBI:CHEBI:456216; EC=2.7.11.1; Evidence={ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q09137};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + L-seryl-[acetyl-CoA carboxylase] = ADP + H(+) + O-phospho-L-seryl-[acetyl-CoA carboxylase]; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:20333, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:13722, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:13723, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:29999, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:83421, ChEBI:CHEBI:456216; EC=2.7.11.27; Evidence={ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q09137};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + L-seryl-[3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase] = ADP + H(+) + O-phospho-L-seryl-[3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase]; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:23172, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:13692, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:13693, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:29999, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:83421, ChEBI:CHEBI:456216; EC=2.7.11.31; Evidence={ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q09137};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Activated by phosphorylation on Thr-172. Binding of AMP to non-catalytic gamma subunit (PRKAG1, PRKAG2 or PRKAG3) results in allosteric activation, inducing phosphorylation on Thr-172. AMP-binding to gamma subunit also sustains activity by preventing dephosphorylation of Thr-172. ADP also stimulates Thr-172 phosphorylation, without stimulating already phosphorylated AMPK. ATP promotes dephosphorylation of Thr-172, rendering the enzyme inactive. Under physiological conditions AMPK mainly exists in its inactive form in complex with ATP, which is much more abundant than AMP. AMPK is activated by antihyperglycemic drug metformin, a drug prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes: in vivo, metformin seems to mainly inhibit liver gluconeogenesis. However, metformin can be used to activate AMPK in muscle and other cells in culture or ex vivo (PubMed:11602624). Selectively inhibited by compound C (6-[4-(2-Piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl)]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidine. Activated by resveratrol, a natural polyphenol present in red wine, and S17834, a synthetic polyphenol. Salicylate/aspirin directly activates kinase activity, primarily by inhibiting Thr-172 dephosphorylation.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
protein kinase,cAMP-activated,alpha 2 catalytic subunit,involved in fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism,expressed in skeletal muscle,complexing with beta 2 and gamma 1subunits

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PRKAA2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PRKAA2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PRKAA2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003682 chromatin binding IEA,ISS --
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IEA,TAS 7959015
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity IBA,ISS --
GO:0004679 AMP-activated protein kinase activity IEA,ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKAA2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PRKAA2: view

Animal Models for PRKAA2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PRKAA2:

Animal Models for research

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PRKAA2

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PRKAA2 Gene

Localization for PRKAA2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKAA2 Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=In response to stress, recruited by p53/TP53 to specific promoters.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PRKAA2 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
golgi apparatus 4
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
lysosome 2
plasma membrane 1
peroxisome 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Nuclear speckles (3)
  • Golgi apparatus (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PRKAA2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IBA,TAS 21768291
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA 21873635
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IDA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKAA2: view

Pathways & Interactions for PRKAA2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PRKAA2: view

Pathways by source for PRKAA2 Gene

1 Tocris pathway for PRKAA2 Gene
5 Qiagen pathways for PRKAA2 Gene
  • AMPK Enzyme Complex Pathway
  • eNOS Signaling
  • Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
  • mTOR Pathway
  • PGC1Alpha Pathway
1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for PRKAA2 Gene
1 GeneTex pathway for PRKAA2 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for PRKAA2 Gene

Activates:
Inactivates:
Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:
Other effect:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PRKAA2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006325 chromatin organization IEA --
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA,IBA 21873635
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006631 fatty acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006633 fatty acid biosynthetic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRKAA2: view

Drugs & Compounds for PRKAA2 Gene

(51) Drugs for PRKAA2 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Metformin Approved Pharma activator, inhibitor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator 2304
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Target, activator 1600
fostamatinib Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor Kinase Inhibitors 0
Topiramate Approved Pharma Transporter, inducer GluR5 receptor antagonist,anticonvulsant, GluR5 antagonist; inhibits carbonic anhydrase (CA) II and IV 289
Adenosine monophosphate Approved, Investigational Nutra Target, activator 0

(24) Additional Compounds for PRKAA2 Gene - From: Novoseek, HMDB, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine 5'-diphosphate
  • ADENOSINE-5'-diphosphATE
  • H3ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphate
58-64-0
Dorsomorphin dihydrochloride
1219168-18-9

(3) Tocris Compounds for PRKAA2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AICAR AMPK activator 2627-69-2
Dorsomorphin dihydrochloride Potent AMPK inhibitor 1219168-18-9
RSVA 405 AMPK activator; also STAT3 inhibitor 140405-36-3

(14) ApexBio Compounds for PRKAA2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
A-769662 AMPK activator,potent and reversible 844499-71-4
AICAR AMPK activator 2627-69-2
AICAR phosphate AMPK activator 681006-28-0
Dorsomorphin AMPK inhibitor 866405-64-3
Dorsomorphin 2HCl AMPK inhibitor 1219168-18-9
GSK621 AMPK agonist 1346607-05-3
Imeglimin Antidiabetic agent 775351-65-0
Imeglimin hydrochloride Antidiabetic agent 775351-61-6
Metformin HCl Anti-diabetic drug 1115-70-4
Phenformin HCl 834-28-6
PT 1 AMPK activator, selective 331002-70-1
RSVA 405 140405-36-3
SAMS Peptide 125911-68-4
ZLN024 hydrochloride
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PRKAA2: view

Drug products for research

Transcripts for PRKAA2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PRKAA2 Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
17 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PRKAA2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRKAA2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PRKAA2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PRKAA2

Expression for PRKAA2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PRKAA2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PRKAA2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Muscle - Skeletal (x9.9), Heart - Left Ventricle (x7.9), and Heart - Atrial Appendage (x4.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PRKAA2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lung (45.8) and Heart (6.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PRKAA2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PRKAA2 Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PRKAA2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PRKAA2 Gene:

Hs.437039

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PRKAA2 Gene

  • Muscle(4.7)
  • Heart(4.7)
  • Kidney(2.8)
  • Nervous system(2.6)
  • Liver(2.4)
  • Blood(2.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PRKAA2: view

Primer products for research

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PRKAA2 Gene

Orthologs for PRKAA2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for PRKAA2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PRKAA2 29 30
  • 99.58 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PRKAA2 29 30
  • 95.53 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PRKAA2 29 30
  • 95.05 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Prkaa2 29
  • 90.46 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Prkaa2 29 16 30
  • 90.34 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PRKAA2 30
  • 76 (a)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PRKAA2 30
  • 72 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PRKAA2 29 30
  • 79.64 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PRKAA2 30
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia prkaa2 29
  • 81.37 (n)
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii prkaa2 29 30
  • 75.39 (n)
OneToOne
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta SNF1A 29 30
  • 59.86 (n)
OneToMany
CG3105 31
  • 30 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002686 29
  • 59.03 (n)
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea aak-2 29 30
  • 58.33 (n)
ManyToMany
T01C8.1a 31
  • 57 (a)
T01C8.1b 31
  • 57 (a)
aak-1 30
  • 42 (a)
ManyToMany
B0511.4 31
  • 36 (a)
Y38H8A.4 31
  • 35 (a)
DC2.7a 31
  • 32 (a)
K. Lactis Yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A03806g 29
  • 56.81 (n)
Baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SNF1 29 30 32
  • 54.91 (n)
OneToMany
A. gosspyii yeast
(Eremothecium gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AEL230W 29
  • 53.95 (n)
Rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os08g0484600 29
  • 56.87 (n)
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 30
  • 59 (a)
OneToMany
Fission Yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes ssp2 29
  • 53.05 (n)
Bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU04566 29
  • 52.78 (n)
Species where no ortholog for PRKAA2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PRKAA2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PRKAA2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PRKAA2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PRKAA2: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for PRKAA2

Paralogs for PRKAA2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PRKAA2: view

Variants for PRKAA2 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PRKAA2 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs112086177 Benign: not provided 56,703,967(+) C/T
NM_006252.4(PRKAA2):c.789-4C>T
INTRON
rs145987132 Uncertain Significance: Severe Myopia 56,692,379(+) C/T
NM_006252.4(PRKAA2):c.352C>T (p.Arg118Trp)
MISSENSE
rs17848599 Benign: not provided 56,706,197(+) T/C
NM_006252.4(PRKAA2):c.1399T>C (p.Leu467=)
SYNONYMOUS
rs187294561 Benign: not provided 56,674,374(+) T/C
NM_006252.4(PRKAA2):c.95-7T>C
INTRON
rs41285004 Benign: not provided 56,704,121(+) T/C
NM_006252.4(PRKAA2):c.939T>C (p.Ser313=)
SYNONYMOUS

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for PRKAA2 Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PRKAA2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1077860 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv520726 CNV loss 19592680
nsv523032 CNV gain 19592680
nsv956716 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for PRKAA2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 19.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.47; 28.72% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PRKAA2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PRKAA2
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PRKAA2
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
PRKAA2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKAA2 Gene

Disorders for PRKAA2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(12) MalaCards diseases for PRKAA2 Gene - From: COP and GCD

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
peutz-jeghers syndrome
  • pjs
ischemia
  • acute coronary syndrome
wolff-parkinson-white syndrome
  • wpw syndrome
tuberous sclerosis
  • bourneville's disease
hyperglycemia
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for PRKAA2

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Atlas
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PRKAA2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PRKAA2 Gene

Publications for PRKAA2 Gene

  1. Characterization and chromosomal localization of the human homologue of a rat AMP-activated protein kinase-encoding gene: a major regulator of lipid metabolism in mammals. (PMID: 7959015) Aguan K … Sarkar NH (Gene 1994) 2 3 4 22
  2. A polymorphism in the AMPKalpha2 subunit gene is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population. (PMID: 16567511) Horikoshi M … Kadowaki T (Diabetes 2006) 3 22 40
  3. AMP-kinase alpha2 subunit gene PRKAA2 variants are associated with total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in normal women. (PMID: 16801347) Spencer-Jones NJ … O'Dell SD (Journal of medical genetics 2006) 3 22 40
  4. WIPI3 and WIPI4 β-propellers are scaffolds for LKB1-AMPK-TSC signalling circuits in the control of autophagy. (PMID: 28561066) Bakula D … Proikas-Cezanne T (Nature communications 2017) 3 4
  5. The last enzyme of the de novo purine synthesis pathway 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (ATIC) plays a central role in insulin signaling and the Golgi/endosomes protein network. (PMID: 25687571) Boutchueng-Djidjou M … Faure RL (Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2015) 3 4

Products for PRKAA2 Gene

Sources for PRKAA2 Gene