This gene encodes a member of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family of peptides. The encoded 95 aa preproprotein is synthesized in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and proteolytically processed to generate two peptide products. These products include the active pancreatic hormone of 36 aa and an icosapeptide of unknown function. This hormone acts as a regulator of pancreatic and g... See more...

Aliases for PPY Gene

Aliases for PPY Gene

  • Pancreatic Polypeptide 2 3 4 5
  • PNP 2 3 4
  • Prepro-PP (Prepropancreatic Polypeptide) 2 3
  • Pancreatic Polypeptide Y 2 3
  • Pancreatic Prohormone 3 4
  • PP 3 4
  • Obinepitide 4
  • PPY 5

External Ids for PPY Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PPY Gene

  • GC17M041760
  • GC17M044195
  • GC17M042028
  • GC17M042493
  • GC17M039373
  • GC17M037782

Summaries for PPY Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PPY Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family of peptides. The encoded 95 aa preproprotein is synthesized in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and proteolytically processed to generate two peptide products. These products include the active pancreatic hormone of 36 aa and an icosapeptide of unknown function. This hormone acts as a regulator of pancreatic and gastrointestinal functions and may be important in the regulation of food intake. Plasma level of this hormone has been shown to be reduced in conditions associated with increased food intake and elevated in anorexia nervosa. In addition, infusion of this hormone in obese rodents has shown to decrease weight gain. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes an isoform that is proteolytically processed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]

GeneCards Summary for PPY Gene

PPY (Pancreatic Polypeptide) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PPY include Auditory System Cancer and Non-Functioning Pancreatic Endocrine Tumor. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include signaling receptor binding and G protein-coupled receptor binding. An important paralog of this gene is NPY.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PPY Gene

  • Pancreatic hormone is synthesized in pancreatic islets of Langerhans and acts as a regulator of pancreatic and gastrointestinal functions.
  • The physiological role for the icosapeptide has not yet been elucidated.

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PPY Gene

Genomics for PPY Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for PPY Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH17J043944 Promoter/Enhancer 1.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 600.7 +0.0 11 1.2 GATAD2A CTCF JUND PRDM1 ZNF143 RXRB REST RAD21 IRF2 TRIM22 PPY lnc-NAGS-3 MPP2 PYY lnc-PPY-1 LOC102724183
GH17J043942 Promoter 0.3 EPDnew 600.7 +1.7 1716 0.1 PPY lnc-PPY-1 LOC102724183
GH17J043900 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 11.8 +43.6 43579 2 SP1 PRDM10 RFX1 FOS DDX20 ZIC2 PKNOX1 POLR2A PATZ1 ZNF600 MPP2 PPY TMEM101 ENSG00000221044 lnc-PPY-2 HSALNG0116686 CD300LG
GH17J044101 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 10.8 -163.4 -163443 12.5 HNRNPL CREB1 GATAD2A PRDM10 ZNF629 REST TFE3 LEF1 SOX13 IKZF1 ASB16-AS1 TMUB2 ENSG00000267681 LINC00910 DHX8 ASB16 ENSG00000267340 NAGS G6PC3 NBR2
GH17J043983 Enhancer 1.2 FANTOM5 ENCODE 12.4 -39.7 -39746 1.2 HNRNPL CREB1 GATAD2A CTCF ZNF629 TFE3 SOX13 IKZF1 RFX5 ZNF692 TMEM101 MPP2 PPY ENSG00000221044 NAGS G6PC3 PYY HSALNG0116695
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PPY on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PPY

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PPY gene promoter:
  • Arnt
  • Egr-1
  • MZF-1
  • NF-1
  • Nkx2-2
  • p53
  • SEF-1 (1)
  • STAT5A

Genomic Locations for PPY Gene

Genomic Locations for PPY Gene
chr17:43,940,802-43,944,212
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
3,411 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr17:42,018,172-42,019,836
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
1,665 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PPY Gene

Genes around PPY on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PPY Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PPY Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PPY Gene

Proteins for PPY Gene

  • Protein details for PPY Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P01298-PAHO_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Pancreatic prohormone
    Protein Accession:
    P01298

    Protein attributes for PPY Gene

    Size:
    95 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    10445 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PPY Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PPY Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PPY Gene

Post-translational modifications for PPY Gene

No Post-translational modifications

Other Protein References for PPY Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PPY Gene

Domains & Families for PPY Gene

Gene Families for PPY Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for PPY Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Pancreatic hormone
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PPY Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Pancreatic polypeptide (PAHO_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P01298

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PAHO_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the NPY family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the NPY family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PPY: view

Function for PPY Gene

Molecular function for PPY Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Pancreatic hormone is synthesized in pancreatic islets of Langerhans and acts as a regulator of pancreatic and gastrointestinal functions.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
The physiological role for the icosapeptide has not yet been elucidated.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
pancreatic polypeptide hormone precursor,expressed in the PP cells of the pancreas,regulator of pancreatic and gastrointestinal functions

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PPY Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PPY Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001664 G protein-coupled receptor binding IEA,IPI 7493937
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA,IBA 21873635
GO:0005184 neuropeptide hormone activity IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPY: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PPY: view

Animal Models for PPY Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PPY:
  • Ppy Ppy<tm1b(KOMP)Wtsi>
  • Ppy Ppy<tm1Mws>

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PPY

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PPY

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PPY Gene

Localization for PPY Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PPY Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PPY gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
cytosol 2
peroxisome 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PPY Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA,TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA,IBA 21873635
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPY: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PPY Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PPY Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PPY: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PPY Gene

Activates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PPY Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007218 neuropeptide signaling pathway IBA 21873635
GO:0007631 feeding behavior IBA 21873635
GO:0009306 protein secretion TAS 2997153
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPY: view

Drugs & Compounds for PPY Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for PPY Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PPY Gene

2 REFSEQ mRNAs :
8 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
6 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PPY

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PPY Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b
SP1: - - -
SP2: - -
SP3: - -
SP4: -
SP5:

Relevant External Links for PPY Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PPY

Expression for PPY Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PPY Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PPY Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreas (x52.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PPY Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Islet of Langerhans (66.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PPY Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PPY Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PPY

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PPY Gene:

Hs.558368

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PPY Gene

  • Pancreas(5)
  • Spleen(4.3)
  • Intestine(3.5)
  • Nervous system(3)
  • Blood(2.9)
  • Stomach(2.9)
  • Liver(2.7)
  • Muscle(2.5)
  • Gall bladder(2.4)
  • Heart(2.3)
  • Kidney(2.3)
  • Skin(2.2)
  • Adrenal gland(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PPY: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PPY Gene

Orthologs for PPY Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for PPY Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PPY 30 31
  • 98.6 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PPY 30 31
  • 86.88 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PPY 30 31
  • 84.07 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ppy 30
  • 81.48 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ppy 30 17 31
  • 80.56 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PPY 31
  • 76 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for PPY was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for PPY Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PPY (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PPY (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PPY: view image

Paralogs for PPY Gene

Paralogs for PPY Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for PPY Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

  • PAHO_HUMAN
  • K7EKP2_HUMAN
  • K7EML0_HUMAN

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PPY Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PPY: view

Variants for PPY Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PPY Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs7215698 - p.Glu78Gly

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for PPY Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PPY Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv993450 CNV deletion 20482838
nsv1146669 OTHER inversion 26484159
nsv833454 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for PPY Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 72.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.70; 32.43% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PPY Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PPY

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PPY Gene

Disorders for PPY Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(38) MalaCards diseases for PPY Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
auditory system cancer
  • ear neoplasms
non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor
  • non functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor
middle ear adenocarcinoma
  • adenocarcinoma of middle ear
auditory system benign neoplasm
sensory organ benign neoplasm
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PPY in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PPY

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PPY: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PPY Gene

Publications for PPY Gene

  1. Association studies of BMI and type 2 diabetes in the neuropeptide Y pathway: a possible role for NPY2R as a candidate gene for type 2 diabetes in men. (PMID: 17325259) Campbell CD … Hirschhorn JN (Diabetes 2007) 3 23 41
  2. Genes encoding pancreatic polypeptide and neuropeptide Y are on human chromosomes 17 and 7. (PMID: 3753985) Takeuchi T … Shows TB (The Journal of clinical investigation 1986) 2 3 4
  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2R) gene and association with severe obesity in French white subjects. (PMID: 17235527) Siddiq A … Froguel P (Diabetologia 2007) 3 41
  4. Strongly altered receptor binding properties in PP and NPY chimeras are accompanied by changes in structure and membrane binding. (PMID: 15966750) Lerch M … Zerbe O (Biochemistry 2005) 3 4
  5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4

Products for PPY Gene

Sources for PPY Gene