The protein encoded by this gene is a platelet-derived growth factor that belongs to the CXC chemokine family. This growth factor is a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophils. It has been shown to stimulate various cellular processes including DNA synthesis, mitosis, glycolysis, intracellular cAMP accumulation, prostaglandin E2 secretion, and synthesis of hyaluronic... See more...

Aliases for PPBP Gene

Aliases for PPBP Gene

  • Pro-Platelet Basic Protein 2 3 5
  • Platelet Basic Protein 2 3 4
  • CTAP3 2 3 4
  • CXCL7 2 3 4
  • SCYB7 2 3 4
  • LDGF 2 3 4
  • MDGF 2 3 4
  • TGB1 2 3 4
  • PBP 2 3 4
  • Connective Tissue-Activating Peptide III 2 3
  • Chemokine (C-X-C Motif) Ligand 7 2 3
  • Macrophage-Derived Growth Factor 3 4
  • Leukocyte-Derived Growth Factor 3 4
  • C-X-C Motif Chemokine 7 3 4
  • Beta-Thromboglobulin 2 3
  • Beta-TG 2 3
  • CTAPIII 2 3
  • LA-PF4 2 3
  • THBGB1 3 4
  • B-TG1 2 3
  • NAP-2 2 3
  • TGB 2 3
  • Small Inducible Cytokine Subfamily B, Member 7 3
  • Neutrophil-Activating Peptide-2 2
  • Low-Affinity Platelet Factor IV 3
  • Neutrophil-Activating Peptide 2 3
  • Small Inducible Cytokine B7 3
  • Small-Inducible Cytokine B7 4
  • Thromboglobulin, Beta-1 3
  • CXC Chemokine Ligand 7 3
  • Thrombocidin 1 3
  • Thrombocidin 2 3
  • CTAP-III 3
  • NAP-2-L1 2
  • THBGB 3
  • PPBP 5
  • TC1 3
  • TC2 3

External Ids for PPBP Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PPBP Gene

  • THBGB1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PPBP Gene

  • GC04M074841
  • GC04M075092
  • GC04M075253
  • GC04M075319
  • GC04M075217
  • GC04M070663

Summaries for PPBP Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PPBP Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a platelet-derived growth factor that belongs to the CXC chemokine family. This growth factor is a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophils. It has been shown to stimulate various cellular processes including DNA synthesis, mitosis, glycolysis, intracellular cAMP accumulation, prostaglandin E2 secretion, and synthesis of hyaluronic acid and sulfated glycosaminoglycan. It also stimulates the formation and secretion of plasminogen activator by synovial cells. The protein also is an antimicrobial protein with bactericidal and antifungal activity. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

GeneCards Summary for PPBP Gene

PPBP (Pro-Platelet Basic Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PPBP include Erythromelalgia and Thrombocytosis. Among its related pathways are Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include growth factor activity and glucose transmembrane transporter activity. An important paralog of this gene is CXCL1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PPBP Gene

  • LA-PF4 stimulates DNA synthesis, mitosis, glycolysis, intracellular cAMP accumulation, prostaglandin E2 secretion, and synthesis of hyaluronic acid and sulfated glycosaminoglycan. It also stimulates the formation and secretion of plasminogen activator by human synovial cells. NAP-2 is a ligand for CXCR1 and CXCR2, and NAP-2, NAP-2(73), NAP-2(74), NAP-2(1-66), and most potent NAP-2(1-63) are chemoattractants and activators for neutrophils. TC-1 and TC-2 are antibacterial proteins, in vitro released from activated platelet alpha-granules. CTAP-III(1-81) is more potent than CTAP-III desensitize chemokine-induced neutrophil activation.

Gene Wiki entry for PPBP Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PPBP Gene

Genomics for PPBP Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for PPBP Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH04J073988 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 250.7 0.0 -20 0.1 SPI1 SCRT2 PPBP lnc-CXCL5-1 CXCL5 ENSG00000287037
GH04J074036 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 10.5 -50.1 -50107 3.8 NCOR1 ZNF600 MYC IKZF1 ZNF592 POLR2A ZIC2 ZBTB10 NONO CTCF CXCL3 LOC105377275 lnc-CXCL3-1 lnc-MTHFD2L-4 PPBP CXCL2 RN7SL218P HSALNG0035185 CXCL5
GH04J073660 Enhancer 1.3 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.3 +325.3 325312 4.2 ZNF654 CTCF REST TRIM22 RAD51 RAD21 SMC3 ATF1 MAFK RB1 CXCL3 CXCL2 CXCL8 RASSF6 MTHFD2L PF4V1 PPBP HSALNG0035157 HSALNG0035160
GH04J074016 Enhancer 1.1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 11.7 -28.6 -28611 11.6 REST MAFF ZNF316 MAFK EHMT2 ZBTB33 CHAMP1 MIER2 ATF4 ATF3 CXCL2 CXCL3 EREG CXCL8 PF4V1 MTHFD2L PPBP HSALNG0035185 RN7SL218P lnc-MTHFD2L-2
GH04J073944 Promoter 0.9 Ensembl 10.9 +43.7 43689 1.4 ZIC2 ZNF341 SP2 CTCF KLF10 POU5F1 ZBTB12 SP3 ZBTB8A NANOG CXCL1P1 lnc-PF4-1 PF4V1 PPBP CXCL5 ENSG00000287037 PF4 CXCL1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PPBP on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PPBP

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PPBP gene promoter:
  • AML1a

Genomic Locations for PPBP Gene

Latest Assembly
chr4:73,986,439-73,988,190
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
1,752 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Previous Assembly
chr4:74,852,156-74,853,907
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
1,752 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

chr4:74,852,755-74,853,914
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
1,160 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PPBP Gene

Genes around PPBP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PPBP Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PPBP Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PPBP Gene

Proteins for PPBP Gene

  • Protein details for PPBP Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P02775-CXCL7_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Platelet basic protein
    Protein Accession:
    P02775
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R5F3
    • Q6IBJ8

    Protein attributes for PPBP Gene

    Size:
    128 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    13894 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Beta-thromboglobulin is a homotetramer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PPBP Gene

neXtProt entry for PPBP Gene

Post-translational modifications for PPBP Gene

  • Proteolytic removal of residues 1-9 produces the active peptide connective tissue-activating peptide III (CTAP-III) (low-affinity platelet factor IV (LA-PF4)).
  • Proteolytic removal of residues 1-13 produces the active peptide beta-thromboglobulin, which is released from platelets along with platelet factor 4 and platelet-derived growth factor.
  • NAP-2(1-66) is produced by proteolytical processing, probably after secretion by leukocytes other than neutrophils.
  • NAP-2(73) and NAP-2(74) seem not be produced by proteolytical processing of secreted precursors but are released in an active form from platelets.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PPBP Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibodies for research

  • Abcam antibodies for PPBP

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PPBP Gene

Domains & Families for PPBP Gene

Gene Families for PPBP Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for PPBP Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PPBP Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Small-inducible cytokine B7 (CXCL7_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P02775

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

CXCL7_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the intercrine alpha (chemokine CxC) family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the intercrine alpha (chemokine CxC) family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PPBP: view

Function for PPBP Gene

Molecular function for PPBP Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
LA-PF4 stimulates DNA synthesis, mitosis, glycolysis, intracellular cAMP accumulation, prostaglandin E2 secretion, and synthesis of hyaluronic acid and sulfated glycosaminoglycan. It also stimulates the formation and secretion of plasminogen activator by human synovial cells. NAP-2 is a ligand for CXCR1 and CXCR2, and NAP-2, NAP-2(73), NAP-2(74), NAP-2(1-66), and most potent NAP-2(1-63) are chemoattractants and activators for neutrophils. TC-1 and TC-2 are antibacterial proteins, in vitro released from activated platelet alpha-granules. CTAP-III(1-81) is more potent than CTAP-III desensitize chemokine-induced neutrophil activation.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
connective tissue activating peptide III,including platelet basic protein,precursor of beta thromboglobulin and neutrophil activating protein 2 (see IMC2@)

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PPBP Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PPBP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005125 cytokine activity IEA --
GO:0005355 glucose transmembrane transporter activity TAS 4005226
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 28381538
GO:0008009 chemokine activity IBA 21873635
GO:0008083 growth factor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPBP: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PPBP: view

miRNA for PPBP Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PPBP

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PPBP

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PPBP Gene

Localization for PPBP Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PPBP Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PPBP gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
cytosol 2
lysosome 2
peroxisome 1
endosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PPBP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA 21873635
GO:0031093 platelet alpha granule lumen TAS --
GO:1904724 tertiary granule lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPBP: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PPBP Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PPBP Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for PPBP Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
.85
.85
.84
.84
.74
.72
.66
.65
.64
.62
.61
.60
.57
.57
2 GPCR Pathway
.73
.73
.62
.59
.58
.58
.55
3 ERK Signaling
.61
.61
.58
.51
.49
4 Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency
.61
.61
.59
.48
5 CREB Pathway
.68
.68
.63
.50
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PPBP: view

Pathways by source for PPBP Gene

54 Qiagen pathways for PPBP Gene
  • 14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling
  • Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases
  • Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
  • Activation of PKA through GPCR
  • Activation of PKC through GPCR

SIGNOR curated interactions for PPBP Gene

Inactivates:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PPBP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002576 platelet degranulation TAS --
GO:0006935 chemotaxis IEA --
GO:0006952 defense response IEA --
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IBA 21873635
GO:0006955 immune response IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPBP: view

Drugs & Compounds for PPBP Gene

(45) Drugs for PPBP Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Copper Approved, Investigational Pharma Target 276
cyclic amp Experimental Pharma 0
Ethanesulfonic acid Experimental Pharma Target 0

(46) Additional Compounds for PPBP Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PPBP: view

Transcripts for PPBP Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PPBP Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
8 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
1 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PPBP

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PPBP Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PPBP Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PPBP

Expression for PPBP Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PPBP Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PPBP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x43.6) and Spleen (x5.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PPBP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Platelet (32.3) and Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (28.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PPBP Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PPBP Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PPBP

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PPBP Gene:

Hs.2164

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PPBP Gene

  • Blood(4.8)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Bone marrow(3.1)
  • Spleen(2.8)
  • Lymph node(2.7)
  • Heart(2.6)
  • Lung(2.1)
  • Nervous system(2.1)
  • Kidney(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PPBP: view

Primer products for research

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PPBP Gene

Orthologs for PPBP Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PPBP Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PPBP 29 30
  • 98.96 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PPBP 30
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PPBP 30
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ppbp 30
  • 52 (a)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 30
  • 50 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 30
  • 44 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 30
  • 44 (a)
ManyToMany
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 30
  • 44 (a)
OneToMany
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 30
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 30
  • 36 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for PPBP was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for PPBP Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PPBP (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PPBP (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PPBP: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for PPBP

Paralogs for PPBP Gene

(9) SIMAP similar genes for PPBP Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • CXCL7_HUMAN

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PPBP Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PPBP: view

Variants for PPBP Gene

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for PPBP Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PPBP Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3575747 CNV gain 25503493
nsv1001725 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1004768 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1006029 CNV gain 25217958
nsv525980 CNV gain 19592680

Variation tolerance for PPBP Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 61.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.07; 1.49% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PPBP Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PPBP
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
PPBP

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PPBP Gene

Disorders for PPBP Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(34) MalaCards diseases for PPBP Gene - From: COP and GCD

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
erythromelalgia
  • erythermalgia
thrombocytosis
  • thrombocythaemia
essential thrombocythemia
  • essential thrombocythaemia
peripheral vascular disease
  • arterial occlusive disease
thrombophilia
  • hypercoagulability state
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PPBP in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PPBP

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Atlas
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PPBP: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PPBP Gene

Publications for PPBP Gene

  1. Characterization of the human beta-thromboglobulin gene. Comparison with the gene for platelet factor 4. (PMID: 1826003) Majumdar S … Poncz M (The Journal of biological chemistry 1991) 2 3 4 22
  2. Localization of distal regulatory domains in the megakaryocyte-specific platelet basic protein/platelet factor 4 gene locus. (PMID: 11468158) Zhang C … Reilly MP (Blood 2001) 3 4 22
  3. Thrombocidins, microbicidal proteins from human blood platelets, are C-terminal deletion products of CXC chemokines. (PMID: 10877842) Krijgsveld J … Dankert J (The Journal of biological chemistry 2000) 3 4 22
  4. Novel C-terminally truncated isoforms of the CXC chemokine beta-thromboglobulin and their impact on neutrophil functions. (PMID: 9794434) Ehlert JE … Brandt E (Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1998) 3 4 22
  5. Thrombin-activated human platelets release two NAP-2 variants that stimulate polymorphonuclear leukocytes. (PMID: 8950790) Piccardoni P … Cerletti C (Thrombosis and haemostasis 1996) 3 4 22

Products for PPBP Gene

Sources for PPBP Gene