This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subfamily of nuclear receptors. PPARs form heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and these heterodimers regulate transcription of various genes. Three subtypes of PPARs are known: PPAR-alpha, PPAR-delta, and PPAR-gamma. The protein encoded by this gene is PPAR-gamma and is a regulator of... See more...

Aliases for PPARG Gene

Aliases for PPARG Gene

  • Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma 2 3 5
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma 2 3 4
  • NR1C3 2 3 4
  • Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1 Group C Member 3 3 4
  • PPAR-Gamma 3 4
  • PPARgamma 2 3
  • PPARG1 2 3
  • PPARG2 2 3
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Nuclear Receptor Gamma Variant 1 3
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma Splicing 3
  • Peroxisome Proliferative Activated Receptor, Gamma 2
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma 5 3
  • PPARG5 3
  • CIMT1 3
  • PPARG 5
  • GLM1 3

External Ids for PPARG Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PPARG Gene

  • GC03P012258
  • GC03P012304
  • GC03P012305
  • GC03P012263
  • GC03P012328

Summaries for PPARG Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PPARG Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subfamily of nuclear receptors. PPARs form heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and these heterodimers regulate transcription of various genes. Three subtypes of PPARs are known: PPAR-alpha, PPAR-delta, and PPAR-gamma. The protein encoded by this gene is PPAR-gamma and is a regulator of adipocyte differentiation. Additionally, PPAR-gamma has been implicated in the pathology of numerous diseases including obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PPARG Gene

PPARG (Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PPARG include Lipodystrophy, Familial Partial, Type 3 and Carotid Intimal Medial Thickness 1. Among its related pathways are Transcriptional misregulation in cancer and Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins.. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include DNA-binding transcription factor activity and chromatin binding. An important paralog of this gene is PPARA.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PPARG Gene

  • Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. ARF6 acts as a key regulator of the tissue-specific adipocyte P2 (aP2) enhancer. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses. Plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms by regulating the transcription of ARNTL/BMAL1 in the blood vessels (By similarity).
  • (Microbial infection) Upon treatment with M.tuberculosis or its lipoprotein LpqH, phosphorylation of MAPK p38 and IL-6 production are modulated, probably via this protein.

Tocris Summary for PPARG Gene

  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors that heterodimerize with the retinoic X receptor (RXR) to regulate gene expression.

Gene Wiki entry for PPARG Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PPARG Gene

Genomics for PPARG Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for PPARG Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH03J012286 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 617.3 +3.8 3838 8.8 PRDM10 ZNF629 CTCF ZNF692 PRDM1 ZIC2 RBFOX2 PATZ1 EZH2 GABPA PPARG SYN2 TIMP4 NONHSAG034457.2 L13713-141 TSEN2
GH03J012351 Promoter/Enhancer 1.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 611.5 +63.8 63846 0.4 REST SP1 CEBPB ATF3 RCOR1 GTF2F1 JUND MAX MXI1 EP300 PPARG TIMP4 SYN2 MN297956 piR-31534-479 NONHSAG034457.2 TSEN2
GH03J012191 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 22.6 -93.5 -93489 3.9 SP1 CTCF PRDM10 ZNF629 BACH1 JUND LARP7 ZNF143 RELA ZIC2 SYN2 PPARG TAMM41 TSEN2 TIMP4 VGLL4 ENSG00000271716 RAF1 piR-41151 lnc-TIMP4-5
GH03J012307 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE dbSUPER 30.3 +21.2 21208 2.6 REST CEBPA ATF7 SOX13 CEBPB SP1 ATF3 FOXA2 TEAD1 SIX5 PPARG TSEN2 TIMP4 SYN2 L13713-141 ENSG00000225026 NONHSAG034457.2 lnc-SYN2-1
GH03J012344 Enhancer 1.3 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 18.7 +58.2 58233 1.6 ZNF629 CEBPB SP1 TCF7L2 ZNF10 BRCA1 NFE2 ZEB1 TSHZ1 FOS TAMM41 SYN2 PPARG TSEN2 ENSG00000271716 VGLL4 TIMP4 MN297956 piR-31534-479 NONHSAG034457.2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PPARG on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PPARG

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PPARG gene promoter:
  • C/EBPalpha
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB

Genomic Locations for PPARG Gene

Genomic Locations for PPARG Gene
chr3:12,287,368-12,434,356
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
146,989 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr3:12,328,867-12,475,855
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
146,989 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PPARG Gene

Genes around PPARG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PPARG Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PPARG Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PPARG Gene

Proteins for PPARG Gene

  • Protein details for PPARG Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P37231-PPARG_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
    Protein Accession:
    P37231
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K3G6
    • B5BUA1
    • O00684
    • O00710
    • O14515
    • Q0QJH8
    • Q15178
    • Q15179
    • Q15180
    • Q15832
    • Q86U60
    • Q96J12

    Protein attributes for PPARG Gene

    Size:
    505 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    57620 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with FOXO1 (acetylated form) (By similarity). Heterodimer with other nuclear receptors, such as RXRA. The heterodimer with the retinoic acid receptor RXRA is called adipocyte-specific transcription factor ARF6. Interacts with NCOA6 coactivator, leading to a strong increase in transcription of target genes. Interacts with coactivator PPARBP, leading to a mild increase in transcription of target genes. Interacts with NOCA7 in a ligand-inducible manner. Interacts with NCOA1 and NCOA2 LXXLL motifs. Interacts with ASXL1, ASXL2, DNTTIP2, FAM120B, MAP2K1/MEK1, NR0B2, PDPK1, PRDM16, PRMT2 and TGFB1I1. Interacts (when activated by agonist) with PPP5C. Interacts with HELZ2 and THRAP3; the interaction stimulates the transcriptional activity of PPARG. Interacts with PER2, the interaction is ligand dependent and blocks PPARG recruitment to target promoters. Interacts with NOCT. Interacts with ACTN4. Interacts (when in the liganded conformation) with GPS2 (By similarity). Interacts with CRY1 and CRY2 in a ligand-dependent manner (By similarity). In the absence of hormonal ligand, interacts with TACC1 (PubMed:20078863).
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAN38992.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Truncated N-terminus.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=BAA23354.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=BAF83270.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Truncated N-terminus.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=CAA62153.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Truncated N-terminus.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};
    Miscellaneous:
    • [Isoform 3]: Exhibits dominant negative activity over isoform 1.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PPARG Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PPARG Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PPARG Gene

Post-translational modifications for PPARG Gene

  • O-GlcNAcylation at Thr-84 reduces transcriptional activity in adipocytes.
  • Phosphorylated in basal conditions and dephosphorylated when treated with the ligand. May be dephosphorylated by PPP5C. The phosphorylated form may be inactive and dephosphorylation at Ser-112 induces adipogenic activity (By similarity).
  • Glycosylation at Thr84
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PPARG Gene

Domains & Families for PPARG Gene

Gene Families for PPARG Gene

HGNC:
IUPHAR :
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Disease related genes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Nuclear receptors
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Transcription factors

Protein Domains for PPARG Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Steroid hormone receptor signature
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (1C nuclear receptor) signature
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma signature
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PPARG Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (B6ZGS2_HUMAN)
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptor gamma variant 1 (D2KUA6_HUMAN)
  • Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group C member 3 (PPARG_HUMAN)
  • Peroxisome proliferative activated receptor gamma (Q4W4C6_HUMAN)
  • Peroxisome proliferative activated receptor gamma (Q4W4C7_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P37231

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PPARG_HUMAN :
  • The 9aaTAD motif is a transactivation domain present in a large number of yeast and animal transcription factors.
  • Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR1 subfamily.
Domain:
  • The 9aaTAD motif is a transactivation domain present in a large number of yeast and animal transcription factors.
Family:
  • Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR1 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PPARG: view

Function for PPARG Gene

Molecular function for PPARG Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. ARF6 acts as a key regulator of the tissue-specific adipocyte P2 (aP2) enhancer. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses. Plays a role in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms by regulating the transcription of ARNTL/BMAL1 in the blood vessels (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
(Microbial infection) Upon treatment with M.tuberculosis or its lipoprotein LpqH, phosphorylation of MAPK p38 and IL-6 production are modulated, probably via this protein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
(Microbial infection) Expression increases when incubated with M.tuberculosis or its lipoprotein LpqH; induction is TLR2-dependent (at protein level).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
PDPK1 activates its transcriptional activity independently of its kinase activity.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor,steroid/thyroid hormone coactivator receptor superfamily,heterodimerizing with RXR*,coactivated by SRCO1,expressed (isoform 1) in the diploid trophoblast lineages and required for placental development,expressed at low levels in preadipocytes,induced by CEBPB and CEBPD,coexpressed with and coregulated by PPARG,jointly required for full adipocyte differentiation and fat deposition with variability influencing plasma leptin levels in obese humans,modulator of insulin sensitivity and control of glucose homostasis and blood pressure and activation of antidiabetic effect of thiazolidinediones,negative regulator of macrophage activation,inhibiting production of monocyte inflammatory cytokines,increasing PAI1 expression in endothelial cells.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PPARG Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PPARG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000976 transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IBA,ISS --
GO:0000977 RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IBA 21873635
GO:0000981 DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific ISM 19274049
GO:0001103 RNA polymerase II repressing transcription factor binding IBA 21873635
GO:0001227 DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPARG: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PPARG: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for PPARG Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for PPARG Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PPARG:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PPARG

CRISPR Products

Targeted motifs for PPARG Gene
HOMER Transcription Factor Regulatory Elements motif PPARG
  • Consensus sequence: TGACCTTTGCCCCA Submotif: DR1 Cell Type: 3T3L1 GEO ID: GSE13511

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PPARG

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PPARG

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) and Transcription Factor Targets for PPARG Gene

Localization for PPARG Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PPARG Gene

Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Note=Redistributed from the nucleus to the cytosol through a MAP2K1/MEK1-dependent manner. NOCT enhances its nuclear translocation.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PPARG gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
peroxisome 4
cytosol 4
plasma membrane 3
extracellular 3
cytoskeleton 3
mitochondrion 3
endoplasmic reticulum 3
endosome 2
lysosome 2
golgi apparatus 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Nucleoplasm (4)
  • Vesicles (4)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PPARG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000790 nuclear chromatin ISA --
GO:0005634 nucleus IBA,IDA 9568716
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPARG: view

Pathways & Interactions for PPARG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PPARG: view

Pathways by source for PPARG Gene

3 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathways for PPARG Gene
  • Development Beta-adrenergic receptors signaling via cAMP
  • Immune response Oncostatin M signaling via MAPK in human cells
  • Transcription PPAR Pathway
1 Tocris pathway for PPARG Gene
1 Qiagen pathway for PPARG Gene
  • PPAR Pathway
1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for PPARG Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PPARG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS --
GO:0001890 placenta development ISS --
GO:0002674 negative regulation of acute inflammatory response IEA --
GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IEA --
GO:0006357 regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPARG: view

Drugs & Compounds for PPARG Gene

(209) Drugs for PPARG Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Pharma Agonist, Full agonist, Channel blocker, Target, agonist 477
Rosiglitazone Approved, Investigational Pharma Agonist, Full agonist, Activator, Activation, Channel blocker, Target, agonist Potent PPARγ agonist, Potent and selective PPARgamma agonist; antidiabetic agent. 226
Troglitazone Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Pharma Agonist, Full agonist, Channel blocker, Target, agonist Selective PPARγ agonist, Selective PPARgamma agonist; antidiabetic agent 8
Indomethacin Approved, Investigational Pharma Agonist, Partial agonist, Full agonist, Inhibitor, Inhibition, Target, activator, inhibitor Cox inhibitor 150
Bezafibrate Approved, Investigational Pharma Agonist, Target, agonist 16

(84) Additional Compounds for PPARG Gene - From: HMDB, Novoseek, IUPHAR, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
15-deoxy-δ 12 14-prostaglandin J2
Agonist, Full agonist
CDDO
Agonist, Partial agonist
thiazolidinone
Agonist, Partial agonist
(2E)-Decenoyl-CoA
  • (e)-S-2-Decenoate
  • (e)-S-2-Decenoate CoA
  • (e)-S-2-Decenoate coenzyme A
  • (e)-S-2-Decenoic acid
  • 2-trans-Decenoyl-CoA
10018-95-8
(2E)-Dodecenoyl-CoA
1066-12-2

(5) Tocris Compounds for PPARG Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Ciglitazone Selective PPARgamma agonist 74772-77-3
GW 1929 hydrochloride Selective PPARgamma agonist. Orally active 1217466-21-1
nTZDpa Potent, selective PPARgamma partial agonist 118414-59-8
Rosiglitazone Potent and selective PPARgamma agonist; antidiabetic agent. 122320-73-4
Troglitazone Selective PPARgamma agonist; antidiabetic agent 97322-87-7

(27) ApexBio Compounds for PPARG Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
15-deoxy-Δ-12,14-Prostaglandin J2 87893-55-8
AUDA 479413-70-2
BADGE 1675-54-3
Balaglitazone PPAR-γ partial agonist 199113-98-9
Bezafibrate 41859-67-0
Ciglitazone 74772-77-3
Ciprofibrate 52214-84-3
CP 775146 702680-17-9
Fenofibrate 49562-28-9
Gemfibrozil 25812-30-0
GSK 0660 1014691-61-2
GW 7647 265129-71-3
GW1929 Potent PPARγ agonist 196808-24-9
GW9662 PPARγ antagonist 22978-25-2
Inolitazone PPARgamma agonist 223132-37-4
Inolitazone dihydrochloride PPARγ agonist,high-affinity and novel 223132-38-5
Pioglitazone 111025-46-8
Pioglitazone HCl PPARγ agonist 112529-15-4
Rosiglitazone Potent PPARγ agonist 122320-73-4
Rosiglitazone HCl 302543-62-0
Rosiglitazone maleate PPARγ agonist,high-affinity and selective,potent insulin sensitizer 155141-29-0
S26948 353280-43-0
SR 1664 1338259-05-4
SR 202 PPAR antagonist 76541-72-5
T0070907 Human PPARγ antagonist,potent and selective 313516-66-4
Tesaglitazar 251565-85-2
Troglitazone Selective PPARγ agonist 97322-87-7
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PPARG: view

Transcripts for PPARG Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PPARG Gene

16 REFSEQ mRNAs :
36 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
24 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PPARG

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PPARG

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PPARG Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b · 13c
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - - - - -
SP3:
SP4: - -
SP5: - - - - -
SP6: - -
SP7: -
SP8: - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - -

Relevant External Links for PPARG Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PPARG

Expression for PPARG Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PPARG Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PPARG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adipose - Visceral (Omentum) (x9.0), Adipose - Subcutaneous (x8.6), and Breast - Mammary Tissue (x5.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PPARG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Placenta (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PPARG Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PPARG Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PPARG

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PPARG Gene:

Hs.162646

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PPARG Gene:

P37231-PPARG_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highest expression in adipose tissue. Lower in skeletal muscle, spleen, heart and liver. Also detectable in placenta, lung and ovary.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PPARG Gene

  • Heart(4.7)
  • Bone marrow(4.6)
  • Liver(3.8)
  • Intestine(3.8)
  • Muscle(3.7)
  • Kidney(3.5)
  • Blood(3.5)
  • Nervous system(3.4)
  • Skin(3.3)
  • Thyroid gland(3.2)
  • Spleen(3.2)
  • Lung(3.1)
  • Stomach(3.1)
  • Pancreas(3.1)
  • Bone(3)
  • Lymph node(2.8)
  • Adrenal gland(2.7)
  • Eye(2.6)
  • Urine(2.5)
  • Gall bladder(2.3)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PPARG Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
Systems:
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • lymphatic
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Regions:
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • eye
  • face
  • forehead
  • head
  • jaw
  • larynx
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • pituitary gland
  • salivary gland
  • skull
  • thyroid
  • tooth
Thorax:
  • breast
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • diaphragm
  • esophagus
  • heart
  • heart valve
  • lung
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
Abdomen:
  • abdominal wall
  • duodenum
  • intestine
  • kidney
  • liver
  • pancreas
  • small intestine
  • spleen
  • stomach
Pelvis:
  • fallopian tube
  • ovary
  • pelvis
  • penis
  • placenta
  • prostate
  • testicle
  • uterus
  • vagina
  • vas deferens
  • vulva
Limb:
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • nail
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
General:
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • coagulation system
  • hair
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • red blood cell
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • sweat gland
  • vertebrae
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PPARG: view

Orthologs for PPARG Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PPARG Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PPARG 30 31
  • 99.54 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PPARG 31
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PPARG 30 31
  • 92.34 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PPARG 30 31
  • 91.02 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pparg 30 17 31
  • 90.1 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pparg 30
  • 89.83 (n)
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PPARG 31
  • 79 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PPARG 30 31
  • 82.25 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PPARG 31
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia PPARg 30
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.16633 30
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pparg 30 31
  • 67.02 (n)
OneToOne
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Eip75B 32
  • 32 (a)
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea sex-1 32
  • 27 (a)
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 31
  • 24 (a)
OneToMany
Sea Vase
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.186 30
Species where no ortholog for PPARG was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PPARG Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PPARG (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PPARG (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PPARG: view image

Paralogs for PPARG Gene

(36) SIMAP similar genes for PPARG Gene using alignment to 12 proteins:

  • PPARG_HUMAN
  • D2KUA6_HUMAN
  • E7EU07_HUMAN
  • E7EUD1_HUMAN
  • E9PFJ1_HUMAN
  • E9PFV2_HUMAN
  • E9PFV3_HUMAN
  • E9PFX5_HUMAN
  • Q4W448_HUMAN
  • Q4W4C6_HUMAN
  • Q4W4C7_HUMAN
  • Q6L9M1_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PPARG: view

Variants for PPARG Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PPARG Gene

PPARG_HUMAN-P37231
Genetic variations in PPARG define the body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 (BMIQ1) [MIM:606641]. The body max index (BMI) reflects the amount of fat, lean mass, and body build.
PPARG_HUMAN-P37231
Genetic variations in PPARG influence the carotid intimal medial thickness (CIMT) [MIM:609338]. CIMT is a measure of atherosclerosis that is independently associated with traditional atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors and coronary atherosclerotic burden. 35 to 45% of the variability in multivariable-adjusted CIMT is explained by genetic factors.

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PPARG Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 03 pos Variation AA Info Type
709025 Likely Benign: not provided 12,416,835(+) C/T SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT,INTRON_VARIANT
712679 Benign: not provided 12,416,868(+) C/A SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT,INTRON_VARIANT
717269 Benign: not provided 12,434,052(+) G/A SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT,THREE_PRIME_UTR_VARIANT
720030 Likely Benign: not provided 12,379,774(+) C/T SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT,FIVE_PRIME_UTR_VARIANT
728652 Likely Benign: not provided 12,434,133(+) G/A SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT,THREE_PRIME_UTR_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for PPARG Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PPARG Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv763e201 CNV deletion 23290073
dgv850e199 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2661678 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2669014 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2724933 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3561485 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3595320 CNV loss 21293372
esv3595321 CNV loss 21293372
esv3595322 CNV gain 21293372
esv3595323 CNV gain 21293372
esv4138 CNV loss 18987735
esv7808 CNV loss 19470904
nsv1000995 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1073206 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1112379 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1131682 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1147269 CNV deletion 26484159
nsv3702 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv589700 CNV loss 21841781
nsv7351 OTHER inversion 18451855
nsv979804 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for PPARG Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 15.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.88; 67.52% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PPARG Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PPARG
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PPARG

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

Disorders for PPARG Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(121) MalaCards diseases for PPARG Gene - From: UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PPARG in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

PPARG_HUMAN
  • Note=Defects in PPARG can lead to type 2 insulin-resistant diabetes and hyptertension. PPARG mutations may be associated with colon cancer. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10394368}.
  • Obesity (OBESITY) [MIM:601665]: A condition characterized by an increase of body weight beyond the limitation of skeletal and physical requirements, as the result of excessive accumulation of body fat. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:9753710}. Note=Disease susceptibility may be associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Lipodystrophy, familial partial, 3 (FPLD3) [MIM:604367]: A form of lipodystrophy characterized by marked loss of subcutaneous fat from the extremities. Facial adipose tissue may be increased, decreased or normal. Affected individuals show an increased preponderance of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11788685, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12453919}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Glioma 1 (GLM1) [MIM:137800]: Gliomas are benign or malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells. They comprise astrocytomas and glioblastoma multiforme that are derived from astrocytes, oligodendrogliomas derived from oligodendrocytes and ependymomas derived from ependymocytes. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10851250}. Note=Disease susceptibility may be associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry. Polymorphic PPARG alleles have been found to be significantly over-represented among a cohort of American patients with sporadic glioblastoma multiforme suggesting a possible contribution to disease susceptibility.

Genatlas disease for PPARG Gene

marked obesity with a high body-mass index and a defect in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation associated with type 2 diabetes

Additional Disease Information for PPARG

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PPARG: view

Publications for PPARG Gene

  1. Association of the PPARGC1A gene polymorphism with diabetic nephropathy in an Asian Indian population (CURES-41). (PMID: 19900151) Gayathri SB … Mohan V (Metabolic syndrome and related disorders 2010) 3 23 41
  2. Relationship of five type 2 diabetes candidate gene polymorphisms to the age at diagnosis of diabetes in the Slovakian population. (PMID: 20437825) Kozarova M … Tkac I (Bratislavske lekarske listy 2010) 3 23 41
  3. PPARgamma gene C161T substitution alters lipid profile in Chinese patients with coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. (PMID: 20334678) Wan J … Roy S (Cardiovascular diabetology 2010) 3 23 41
  4. C-reactive protein -717C>T genetic polymorphism associates with esophagectomy-induced stress hyperglycemia. (PMID: 20145925) Motoyama S … Ogawa J (World journal of surgery 2010) 3 23 41
  5. PPARG and ADIPOQ gene polymorphisms increase type 2 diabetes mellitus risk in Asian Indian Sikhs: Pro12Ala still remains as the strongest predictor. (PMID: 19846176) Sanghera DK … Kamboh IM (Metabolism: clinical and experimental 2010) 3 23 41

Products for PPARG Gene