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Aliases for PON3 Gene

Aliases for PON3 Gene

  • Paraoxonase 3 2 3 5
  • Arylesterase 3 2 3
  • Serum Paraoxonase/Lactonase 3 3
  • Paraoxanase-3 3
  • EC 4
  • EC 4
  • EC 4

External Ids for PON3 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PON3 Gene

  • GC07M093524
  • GC07M094587
  • GC07M094601
  • GC07M094633
  • GC07M094827
  • GC07M094989
  • GC07M089596

Summaries for PON3 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PON3 Gene

  • This gene is a member of the paraoxonase family and lies in a cluster on chromosome 7 with the other two family members. The encoded protein is secreted into the bloodstream and associates with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The protein also rapidly hydrolyzes lactones and can inhibit the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a function that is believed to slow the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described; however, only one has been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PON3 Gene

PON3 (Paraoxonase 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PON3 include Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 1 and Coronary Heart Disease 1. Among its related pathways are Phase I biotransformations, non P450 and Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and strictosidine synthase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PON2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PON3 Gene

  • Has low activity towards the organophosphate paraxon and aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Rapidly hydrolyzes lactones such as statin prodrugs (e.g. lovastatin). Hydrolyzes aromatic lactones and 5- or 6-member ring lactones with aliphatic substituents but not simple lactones or those with polar substituents.

Gene Wiki entry for PON3 Gene

Additional gene information for PON3 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PON3 Gene

Genomics for PON3 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PON3 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PON3 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH07J095395 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 657.4 -0.5 -514 2.3 PKNOX1 RB1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 RAD21 RARA YY1 EGR1 PON3 ASB4 ENSG00000273138
GH07J095429 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 16.4 -36.4 -36421 6.8 HDGF SMAD1 FOXA2 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YBX1 ZNF2 PON2 PON3 ASB4 PON1 ENSG00000233942 ENSG00000273138
GH07J095439 Enhancer 1.2 FANTOM5 ENCODE 13.2 -45.2 -45240 4.2 FOXA2 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B DMAP1 ETS1 YY1 TCF12 ATF7 NFKBIZ PON1 PON3 PON2 PDK4 ASB4
GH07J095330 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 15.6 +65.6 65615 1.4 SRF PKNOX1 IRF2 TRIM22 CEBPB SP1 NBN MLLT1 HNF4A ATF7 PON3 PON1 ENSG00000237160
GH07J095544 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 10.6 -150.2 -150161 4.1 RAD21 RFX5 YY1 GTF3C2 ZNF335 ZNF366 FOS SMARCA5 ZNF654 ZNF362 ENSG00000231170 PON3 RPS3AP25 PON1 ASB4 ENSG00000279525 PDK4
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PON3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PON3 gene promoter:
  • JunD
  • JunB
  • Fra-1
  • FosB
  • c-Jun
  • c-Fos
  • AP-1
  • GATA-1
  • LCR-F1
  • POU6F1 (c2)

Genomic Locations for PON3 Gene

Genomic Locations for PON3 Gene
36,504 bases
Minus strand
36,504 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PON3 Gene

Genes around PON3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PON3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PON3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PON3 Gene

Proteins for PON3 Gene

  • Protein details for PON3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Serum paraoxonase/lactonase 3
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4D1H8
    • O75855
    • O76060
    • Q6IRU9
    • Q8IX97
    • Q9BZH9

    Protein attributes for PON3 Gene

    354 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39607 Da
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

neXtProt entry for PON3 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PON3 Gene

  • The signal sequence is not cleaved.
  • Glycosylation at posLast=323323, posLast=269269, and Asn29
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PON3 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PON3 Gene

Domains & Families for PON3 Gene

Gene Families for PON3 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Candidate cardiovascular disease genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for PON3 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PON3 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the paraoxonase family.
  • Belongs to the paraoxonase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PON3: view

Function for PON3 Gene

Molecular function for PON3 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Has low activity towards the organophosphate paraxon and aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Rapidly hydrolyzes lactones such as statin prodrugs (e.g. lovastatin). Hydrolyzes aromatic lactones and 5- or 6-member ring lactones with aliphatic substituents but not simple lactones or those with polar substituents.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
A phenyl acetate + H(2)O = a phenol + acetate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
An aryl dialkyl phosphate + H(2)O = dialkyl phosphate + an aryl alcohol.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
An N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone + H(2)O = an N-acyl-L-homoserine.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
paraoxonase-like sequence 2(PON3)

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PON3 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PON3 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PON3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004063 aryldialkylphosphatase activity IEA --
GO:0004064 arylesterase activity IEA,NAS 8661009
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
GO:0016788 hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds IBA --
GO:0018733 3,4-dihydrocoumarin hydrolase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PON3: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PON3: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for PON3 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for PON3 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PON3:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PON3

CRISPR Products

miRNA for PON3 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PON3

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PON3

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PON3 Gene

Localization for PON3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PON3 Gene

Secreted, extracellular space.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PON3 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PON3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA --
GO:0043231 intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 19199708
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PON3: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PON3 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PON3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PON3: view

Pathways by source for PON3 Gene

Interacting Proteins for PON3 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PON3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0009636 response to toxic substance IBA --
GO:0010124 phenylacetate catabolic process IEA --
GO:0016311 dephosphorylation IEA --
GO:0019372 lipoxygenase pathway TAS --
GO:0019439 aromatic compound catabolic process IDA 15772423
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PON3: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PON3 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PON3 Gene

(14) Drugs for PON3 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Lovastatin Approved, Investigational Pharma Competitive, Inhibitor, Full agonist, Agonist, Enzyme, substrate HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, Potent HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor 68
Edetic Acid Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Enzyme, inhibitor 114
Hydroquinone Approved, Investigational Pharma 40
Isopropyl alcohol Approved, Investigational Pharma 0
Phenol Approved, Experimental Pharma 52

(11) Additional Compounds for PON3 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Diethyl P-nitrophenyl phosphate
  • Diethyl paraoxon
  • Ethyl paraoxon
  • O,O-Diethyl O-P-nitrophenyl phosphate
  • P-Nitrophenyl diethyl phosphate
  • 1-Hexyl alcohol
  • 1-Hydroxyhexane
  • Caproic alcohol
  • Hexanol
  • N-Hexyl alcohol
  • 1-Pentol
  • 1-Pentyl alcohol
  • Alcool amylique
  • Amyl alcohol, normal
  • Amylalkohol
4-Hydroxyphenyl acetate
  • 1,4-Benzenediol, monoacetate
  • 4-Hydroxyphenylacetate
  • Hydroquinone monoacetate
  • 1,4-Benzenediol, monoacetic acid
  • 4-Hydroxyphenyl acetic acid
  • 5'-Adenylphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine 5'-diphosphate
  • ADENOSINE-5'-diphosphATE
  • H3ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist, Partial agonist, Antagonist, Gating inhibitor 58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PON3: view

Transcripts for PON3 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PON3 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(6) Additional mRNA sequences :
(80) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(10) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for PON3 Gene

Paraoxonase 3:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PON3

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PON3 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PON3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PON3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PON3 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PON3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x32.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PON3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (28.0) and Plasma (18.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PON3 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PON3 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PON3 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PON3 Gene

  • Liver(4.7)
  • Bone marrow(4)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PON3 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cranial nerve
  • ear
  • epiglottis
  • face
  • head
  • jaw
  • larynx
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • nose
  • pharynx
  • skull
  • tongue
  • vocal cord
  • bronchus
  • clavicle
  • esophagus
  • heart
  • lung
  • scapula
  • trachea
  • biliary tract
  • liver
  • stomach
  • arm
  • digit
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • humerus
  • lower limb
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • toe
  • upper limb
  • blood vessel
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • spinal cord
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PON3: view

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PON3 Gene

Orthologs for PON3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PON3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PON3 33
  • 99.91 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PON3 34 33
  • 86.44 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PON3 34 33
  • 86.35 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pon3 33
  • 84.37 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pon3 16 34 33
  • 83.71 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PON3 34
  • 52 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PON2 34
  • 65 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 55 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii zgc:174637 34 34
  • 50 (a)
pon2 34
  • 50 (a)
pon1 34
  • 49 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea poml-2 34 33
  • 44.38 (n)
poml-4 34
  • 25 (a)
poml-3 34
  • 25 (a)
mec-6 34
  • 19 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PON3 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PON3 Gene

Gene Tree for PON3 (if available)
Gene Tree for PON3 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PON3: view image

Paralogs for PON3 Gene

Paralogs for PON3 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for PON3 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

  • C9JZ99_HUMAN
  • F2Z2L3_HUMAN
  • F8WD41_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PON3: view

Variants for PON3 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PON3 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs147006695 uncertain-significance, not specified 95,394,695(-) G/A/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, stop_gained
rs201544566 uncertain-significance, not specified 95,364,062(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1000308314 -- 95,377,881(-) A/G intron_variant
rs1000361627 -- 95,377,645(-) T/C/G intron_variant
rs1000452747 -- 95,388,406(-) TT/T intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PON3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2660407 CNV deletion 23128226
esv3614193 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1023193 CNV gain 25217958
nsv607862 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for PON3 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 84.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.18; 51.91% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PON3 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PON3 Gene

Disorders for PON3 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for PON3 Gene - From: Orphanet, DISEASES, and Novoseek

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1
  • als1
coronary heart disease 1
  • coronary heart disease, susceptibility to, 1
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PON3 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PON3

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PON3: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PON3 Gene

Publications for PON3 Gene

  1. The human serum paraoxonase/arylesterase gene (PON1) is one member of a multigene family. (PMID: 8661009) Primo-Parmo SL … La Du BN (Genomics 1996) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Genetic variation in the paraoxonase-3 (PON3) gene is associated with serum PON1 activity. (PMID: 17900266) Sanghera DK … Kamboh MI (Annals of human genetics 2008) 3 22 44 58
  3. Paraoxonase gene polymorphisms and haplotype analysis in a stroke population. (PMID: 16551349) Pasdar A … MacLeod MJ (BMC medical genetics 2006) 3 22 44 58
  4. Human paraoxonases (PON1, PON2, and PON3) are lactonases with overlapping and distinct substrate specificities. (PMID: 15772423) Draganov DI … La Du BN (Journal of lipid research 2005) 3 4 22 58
  5. [Association analysis between polymorphisms of PON gene cluster with coronary heart disease in Chinese]. (PMID: 16078734) Wang XL … Gu DF (Yi chuan xue bao = Acta genetica Sinica 2005) 3 22 44 58

Products for PON3 Gene

Sources for PON3 Gene

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