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Aliases for PON2 Gene

Aliases for PON2 Gene

  • Paraoxonase 2 2 3 5
  • Serum Aryldialkylphosphatase 2 3 4
  • Aromatic Esterase 2 3 4
  • Paraoxonase Nirs 2 3
  • Arylesterase 2 2 3
  • A-Esterase 2 3 4
  • PON 2 3 4
  • Serum Paraoxonase/Arylesterase 2 3
  • EC 3.1.1.81 4
  • EC 3.1.1.2 4

External Ids for PON2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PON2 Gene

  • GC07M093569
  • GC07M094632
  • GC07M094646
  • GC07M094678
  • GC07M094872
  • GC07M095034
  • GC07M089641

Summaries for PON2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PON2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the paraoxonase gene family, which includes three known members located adjacent to each other on the long arm of chromosome 7. The encoded protein is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues, membrane-bound, and may act as a cellular antioxidant, protecting cells from oxidative stress. Hydrolytic activity against acylhomoserine lactones, important bacterial quorum-sensing mediators, suggests the encoded protein may also play a role in defense responses to pathogenic bacteria. Mutations in this gene may be associated with vascular disease and a number of quantitative phenotypes related to diabetes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PON2 Gene

PON2 (Paraoxonase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PON2 include Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 1 and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity. Among its related pathways are Phase I biotransformations, non P450 and Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and arylesterase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PON1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PON2 Gene

  • Capable of hydrolyzing lactones and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Has antioxidant activity. Is not associated with high density lipoprotein. Prevents LDL lipid peroxidation, reverses the oxidation of mildly oxidized LDL, and inhibits the ability of MM-LDL to induce monocyte chemotaxis.

Gene Wiki entry for PON2 Gene

Additional gene information for PON2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PON2 Gene

Genomics for PON2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PON2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PON2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH07J095429 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 663.4 +2.5 2533 6.8 HDGF SMAD1 FOXA2 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YBX1 ZNF2 PON2 PON3 ASB4 PON1 ENSG00000233942 ENSG00000273138
GH07J095439 Enhancer 1.2 FANTOM5 ENCODE 10.1 -6.3 -6286 4.2 FOXA2 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B DMAP1 ETS1 YY1 TCF12 ATF7 NFKBIZ PON1 PON3 PON2 PDK4 ASB4
GH07J095420 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 15.6 +14.0 13966 1.5 SOX13 EBF1 CEBPG KLF5 POLR2A ATF7 IKZF2 RUNX3 MAFK SOX5 ASB4 PON2 PON3 PON1 ENSG00000273138
GH07J095320 Enhancer 0.5 ENCODE 7 +114.5 114493 0.7 SP1 JUND ATF3 RXRA HNF4G HNF4A YY1 ASB4 PON1 PON2 GC07P095294
GH07J096387 Enhancer 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE 4.6 -953.4 -953370 2.5 SP1 JUN CEBPB CEBPG EP300 PRDM1 SLC25A13 PON2 GC07P096379 LOC105375410 GC07M096424
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PON2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PON2 gene promoter:
  • Ik-1
  • FOXC1
  • SRY
  • GATA-1
  • LHX3b
  • Lhx3a
  • FOXO3b
  • FOXO3a
  • FOXO3
  • FOXO4

Genomic Locations for PON2 Gene

Genomic Locations for PON2 Gene
chr7:95,404,862-95,435,329
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
30,468 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr7:95,034,174-95,064,510
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
30,337 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PON2 Gene

Genes around PON2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PON2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PON2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PON2 Gene

Proteins for PON2 Gene

  • Protein details for PON2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q15165-PON2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q15165
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4D1H7
    • B2RCP9
    • B4DJD5
    • O15114
    • O15115
    • O75856
    • Q5FBX7
    • Q86YL0

    Protein attributes for PON2 Gene

    Size:
    354 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39381 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotrimer.

    Alternative splice isoforms for PON2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PON2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PON2 Gene

  • The signal sequence is not cleaved.
  • Glycosylation at posLast=323323, posLast=269269, and Asn254
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PON2 Gene

Domains & Families for PON2 Gene

Gene Families for PON2 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Candidate cardiovascular disease genes
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for PON2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q15165

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PON2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the paraoxonase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the paraoxonase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PON2: view

Function for PON2 Gene

Molecular function for PON2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Capable of hydrolyzing lactones and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Has antioxidant activity. Is not associated with high density lipoprotein. Prevents LDL lipid peroxidation, reverses the oxidation of mildly oxidized LDL, and inhibits the ability of MM-LDL to induce monocyte chemotaxis.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
A phenyl acetate + H(2)O = a phenol + acetate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
An N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone + H(2)O = an N-acyl-L-homoserine.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
paraoxonase-like sequence 1(PON2),susceptibility locus for coronary heart disease,ubiquitously expressed

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PON2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PON2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PON2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004064 arylesterase activity IBA --
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
GO:0016788 hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds IBA --
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IDA 15772423
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PON2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PON2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for PON2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PON2 Gene

Localization for PON2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PON2 Gene

Membrane; Peripheral membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PON2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 3
endoplasmic reticulum 3
lysosome 3
nucleus 2
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PON2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS,IEA --
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005764 lysosome IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA 15772423
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PON2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PON2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PON2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PON2: view

Pathways by source for PON2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PON2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006979 response to oxidative stress IEA --
GO:0009636 response to toxic substance IBA --
GO:0019372 lipoxygenase pathway TAS --
GO:0019439 aromatic compound catabolic process IDA 15772423
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PON2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PON2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PON2 Gene

(12) Drugs for PON2 Gene - From: PharmGKB, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Hydroquinone Approved, Investigational Pharma 40
Isopropyl alcohol Approved, Investigational Pharma 0
Phenol Approved, Experimental Pharma 52
Propyl alcohol Approved, Experimental Pharma 0
Water Approved Pharma 0

(10) Additional Compounds for PON2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
1-Hexanol
  • 1-Hexyl alcohol
  • 1-Hydroxyhexane
  • Caproic alcohol
  • Hexanol
  • N-Hexyl alcohol
111-27-3
1-Pentanol
  • 1-Pentol
  • 1-Pentyl alcohol
  • Alcool amylique
  • Amyl alcohol, normal
  • Amylalkohol
71-41-0
4-Hydroxyphenyl acetate
  • 1,4-Benzenediol, monoacetate
  • 4-Hydroxyphenylacetate
  • Hydroquinone monoacetate
  • 1,4-Benzenediol, monoacetic acid
  • 4-Hydroxyphenyl acetic acid
Diethylphosphate
  • Diethylphosphoric acid
  • O,O-Diethylphosphoric acid
  • O,O-Diethylphosphate
  • DEP
  • Di-ethyl phosphate
598-02-7
Diethylthiophosphate
  • DETP
  • Diethylthiophosphoric acid
  • Diethylthiophosphorate
  • O,O-Diethyl phosphorothionate
  • O,O-Diethyl phosphorothionate, ammonium salt
5871-17-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PON2: view

Transcripts for PON2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PON2 Gene

Paraoxonase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PON2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e · 1f ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a ·
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: - -
SP7: -
SP8: - - -
SP9: - - - - - - -
SP10:
SP11: -
SP12: -

ExUns: 9b ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:

Relevant External Links for PON2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PON2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PON2

Expression for PON2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PON2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PON2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal (8.5), Fetal Liver (7.5), and Testis (7.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PON2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PON2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PON2 Gene:

PON2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PON2 Gene:

Hs.744912

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PON2 Gene:

Q15165-PON2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Widely expressed with highest expression in liver, lung, placenta, testis and heart.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PON2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Skin(4.3)
  • Lung(2.4)
  • Blood(2.2)
  • Heart(2.2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PON2 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
Systems:
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Regions:
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cranial nerve
  • ear
  • epiglottis
  • face
  • head
  • jaw
  • larynx
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • nose
  • pharynx
  • skull
  • tongue
  • vocal cord
Thorax:
  • bronchus
  • clavicle
  • esophagus
  • heart
  • lung
  • scapula
  • trachea
Abdomen:
  • biliary tract
  • liver
  • stomach
Limb:
  • arm
  • digit
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • humerus
  • lower limb
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • toe
  • upper limb
General:
  • blood vessel
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • spinal cord
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PON2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for PON2 Gene

Orthologs for PON2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PON2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PON2 34 33
  • 99.81 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PON2 34 33
  • 92.47 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PON2 34 33
  • 91.99 (n)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pon2 16 34 33
  • 86.44 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pon2 33
  • 86.44 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PON2 34
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PON2 34 33
  • 72.79 (n)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 64 (a)
OneToMany
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pon2 33
  • 64.97 (n)
Str.1885 33
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pon3 33
  • 59.5 (n)
zgc:174637 34 34
  • 55 (a)
ManyToMany
pon2 34
  • 54 (a)
ManyToMany
pon1 34
  • 53 (a)
ManyToMany
Dr.20841 33
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea poml-3 34
  • 28 (a)
ManyToMany
poml-2 34
  • 27 (a)
ManyToMany
poml-4 34
  • 27 (a)
ManyToMany
mec-6 34
  • 20 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for PON2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PON2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PON2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PON2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PON2: view image

Paralogs for PON2 Gene

Paralogs for PON2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for PON2 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

  • PON2_HUMAN
  • G3V1K3_HUMAN
  • G3XAK4_HUMAN
  • J3QT77_HUMAN
  • Q6PJZ2_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PON2: view

Variants for PON2 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PON2 Gene

PON2_HUMAN-Q15165
Ser-311 is associated with an increased risk of cornary heart disease.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PON2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs12026 benign, PARAOXONASE 2 POLYMORPHISM 95,411,704(-) G/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs7493 benign, PARAOXONASE 2 POLYMORPHISM 95,405,463(-) G/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1000112785 -- 95,409,987(-) A/G/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, synonymous_variant
rs1000140145 -- 95,428,227(-) T/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000188253 -- 95,415,924(-) C/T intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PON2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3614194 CNV gain 21293372
nsv1023193 CNV gain 25217958
nsv607863 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for PON2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 38.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 13.15; 95.16% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PON2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PON2
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PON2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

Disorders for PON2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(6) MalaCards diseases for PON2 Gene - From: HGMD, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1
  • als1
multiple chemical sensitivity
  • 20th century disease
hypercholesterolemia, familial
  • fhc; fh
heart disease
  • congestive heart failure
coronary artery anomaly
  • coronary heart disease
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PON2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PON2

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PON2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PON2 Gene

Publications for PON2 Gene

  1. Human PON2 gene at 7q21.3: cloning, multiple mRNA forms, and missense polymorphisms in the coding sequence. (PMID: 9714608) Mochizuki H … Prochazka M (Gene 1998) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. DNA polymorphisms in two paraoxonase genes (PON1 and PON2) are associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. (PMID: 9443862) Sanghera DK … Kamboh MI (American journal of human genetics 1998) 3 4 22 44 58
  3. The human serum paraoxonase/arylesterase gene (PON1) is one member of a multigene family. (PMID: 8661009) Primo-Parmo SL … La Du BN (Genomics 1996) 2 3 4 22 58
  4. The role of polymorphisms within paraoxonases (192 Gln/Arg in PON1 and 311Ser/Cys in PON2) in the modulation of cardiovascular risk: a pilot study. (PMID: 19939821) Gluba A … Rysz J (Angiology 2010) 3 22 44 58
  5. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in obesity-related genes and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a prospective cohort study. (PMID: 19818126) Gallicchio L … Helzlsouer KJ (BMC medical genetics 2009) 3 22 44 58

Products for PON2 Gene

Sources for PON2 Gene

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