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Aliases for PNP Gene

Aliases for PNP Gene

  • Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase 2 3 5
  • Inosine-Guanosine Phosphorylase 3 4
  • Inosine Phosphorylase 3 4
  • EC 4 56
  • NP 3 4
  • Epididymis Secretory Sperm Binding Protein Li 156an 3
  • Purine-Nucleoside:Orthophosphate Ribosyltransferase 3
  • Nucleoside Phosphorylase 2
  • HEL-S-156an 3
  • PRO1837 3
  • PUNP 3

External Ids for PNP Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PNP Gene

  • NP

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PNP Gene

  • GC14P020008
  • GC14P021021
  • GC14P001059

Summaries for PNP Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PNP Gene

  • This gene encodes an enzyme which reversibly catalyzes the phosphorolysis of purine nucleosides. The enzyme is trimeric, containing three identical subunits. Mutations which result in nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency result in defective T-cell (cell-mediated) immunity but can also affect B-cell immunity and antibody responses. Neurologic disorders may also be apparent in patients with immune defects. A known polymorphism at aa position 51 that does not affect enzyme activity has been described. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PNP Gene

PNP (Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PNP include Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Deficiency and Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency. Among its related pathways are Pyrimidine metabolism (KEGG) and Innate Immune System. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include drug binding and nucleoside binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PNP Gene

  • The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and pentose-1-phosphate.

Gene Wiki entry for PNP Gene

Additional gene information for PNP Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PNP Gene

Genomics for PNP Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PNP Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PNP Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH14I020468 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 45.8 +2.8 2775 5.9 HDGF FOXA2 SMAD1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 IRF4 PNP SUPT16H METTL17 TEP1 CHD8 APEX1 HNRNPC ENSG00000260830 TTC5 RNASE10
GH14I020679 Promoter/Enhancer 2.7 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 15.6 +215.6 215579 9.8 CLOCK MLX ZFP64 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 RNASE4 ANG ENSG00000259171 PIR55020 TRP-TGG3-2 TRY-GTA5-5 METTL3 ENSG00000258515 SUPT16H CHD8
GH14I020488 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 28.8 +21.5 21467 3.7 HDGF CTCF SOX13 PKNOX1 MAX EBF1 BATF RARA RELA ZFHX2 PNP PIP4P1 RNA5SP382 TEP1 OR4L1 ENSG00000258908 RNASE10
GH14I021092 Promoter/Enhancer 2.8 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 14 +632.5 632472 18.3 CLOCK MLX ZFP64 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 ZNF219 TMEM253 METTL3 METTL17 SUPT16H CHD8 TEP1 APEX1 PNP ARHGEF40
GH14I020453 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 14.4 -13.4 -13411 3.9 CLOCK MLX FEZF1 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 SP3 NFYC OSGEP APEX1 SUPT16H METTL17 ENSG00000258515 TEP1 TTC5 PIP4P1 ZNF219 PNP
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around PNP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for PNP Gene

Genomic Locations for PNP Gene
9,053 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PNP Gene

Genes around PNP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PNP Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PNP Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PNP Gene

Proteins for PNP Gene

  • Protein details for PNP Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R8S5
    • D3DS00
    • Q15160
    • Q5PZ03

    Protein attributes for PNP Gene

    289 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    32118 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotrimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PNP Gene

neXtProt entry for PNP Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PNP Gene


Post-translational modifications for PNP Gene

  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=22, Lys95, isoforms=179, and isoforms=211
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PNP Gene

Protein Products

Domains & Families for PNP Gene

Gene Families for PNP Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PNP Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the PNP/MTAP phosphorylase family.
  • Belongs to the PNP/MTAP phosphorylase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PNP: view

Function for PNP Gene

Molecular function for PNP Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Purine nucleoside + phosphate = purine + alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and pentose-1-phosphate.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PNP Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PNP Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PNP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001882 nucleoside binding IDA 9305962
GO:0002060 purine nucleobase binding IDA 9305962
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0004731 purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity IEA,IDA 3029074
GO:0008144 drug binding IDA 18938130
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PNP: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PNP: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for PNP Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PNP

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PNP Gene

Localization for PNP Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PNP Gene

Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PNP gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 5
cytoskeleton 3
nucleus 3
mitochondrion 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PNP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA,TAS --
GO:0005622 intracellular IDA 15047506
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA,IEA 3029074
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PNP: view

Pathways & Interactions for PNP Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PNP: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P00491-PNPH_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Purine metabolism; purine nucleoside salvage.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PNP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006139 nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process IEA,IDA 3029074
GO:0006148 inosine catabolic process IDA 16964310
GO:0006195 purine nucleotide catabolic process TAS --
GO:0006738 nicotinamide riboside catabolic process IDA 19001417
GO:0006955 immune response IMP 16930574
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PNP: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PNP Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PNP Gene

(66) Drugs for PNP Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Didanosine Approved Pharma Target 150
Inosine Approved, Investigational Pharma Target 0
Cladribine Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inducer Apoptosis inducer in CLL cells 81
Adenine Approved Nutra 0
Adenosine Approved, Investigational Pharma Agonist 551

(60) Additional Compounds for PNP Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 1-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1,2-dideoxy-b-D-Ribofuranose
  • 1-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1,2-dideoxy-beta-D-Ribofuranose
  • 1-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1,2-dideoxy-beta-delta-Ribofuranose
  • 2'-Deoxyadenosine
  • 2-Deoxyadenosine
  • 2'-Deoxy-Guanosine
  • 2'-Deoxyguanosine
  • 2-Deoxyguanosine
  • 9-(2-Deoxy-b-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)-Guanine
  • 9-(2-Deoxy-b-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)guanine
  • 1H-Purine
  • 6H-Imidazo[4,5-D]pyrimidine
  • 7-Methyltheophylline
  • 7H-Imidazo(4,5-D)pyrimidine
  • 7H-Purine
ribose 1-phosphate
  • 1-O-Phosphono-D-ribofuranose
  • a-D-Ribofuranose 1-(dihydrogen phosphate)
  • a-D-Ribose 1-phosphate
  • alpha-D-Ribofuranose 1-(dihydrogen phosphate)
  • alpha-D-Ribofuranose 1-phosphate
  • 3,9-Dihydro-9-b-D-ribofuranosyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione
  • 3,9-Dihydro-9-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione
  • 3,9-Dihydro-9-D-ribofuranosyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione
  • 3,9-Dihydro-9-delta-ribofuranosyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione
  • 9-b-D-Ribofuranosylxanthine
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PNP: view

Transcripts for PNP Gene

Unigene Clusters for PNP Gene

Purine nucleoside phosphorylase:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PNP

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PNP Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PNP Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PNP Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PNP Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PNP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x4.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PNP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Platelet (6.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PNP Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PNP Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PNP Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PNP Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PNP Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in red blood cells; overexpressed in red blood cells (cytoplasm) of patients with hereditary non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia of unknown etiology.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PNP Gene

  • Blood(4.7)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Nervous system(3.2)
  • Bone marrow(2.7)
  • Intestine(2.7)
  • Lung(2.4)
  • Kidney(2)
  • Spleen(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PNP Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • immune
  • lymphatic
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • face
  • head
  • larynx
  • middle ear
  • neck
  • pharynx
  • sinus
  • skull
  • bronchus
  • lung
  • trachea
  • kidney
  • spleen
  • ureter
  • urethra
  • urinary bladder
  • lower limb
  • upper limb
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • coagulation system
  • lymph node
  • red blood cell
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PNP: view

Orthologs for PNP Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PNP Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PNP 33 34
  • 99.31 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 88 (a)
PNP 33 34
  • 87.91 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pnp 33
  • 84.78 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pnp 33 34
  • 84.2 (n)
Pnp2 16 34
  • 78 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PNP 33 34
  • 82.87 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 74 (a)
-- 34
  • 72 (a)
-- 34
  • 71 (a)
-- 34
  • 70 (a)
-- 34
  • 70 (a)
-- 34
  • 70 (a)
-- 34
  • 70 (a)
-- 34
  • 70 (a)
-- 34
  • 68 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PNP 34
  • 73 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PNP 33 34
  • 62.32 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PNP 34
  • 68 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pnp 33
  • 63.24 (n)
Str.8263 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pnp6 34
  • 64 (a)
pnp5a 34
  • 61 (a)
pnp4a 34
  • 59 (a)
pnp5b 34
  • 56 (a)
pnp4b 34
  • 55 (a)
wufc27g06 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP005945 33
  • 55.91 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG16758 33 34
  • 55.36 (n)
CG18128 34
  • 28 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea K02D7.1 33 34
  • 50.19 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes PNP1 33 34 36
  • 54.81 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ACR198W 33
  • 52.75 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C16621g 33
  • 51.55 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPAC1805.16c 33
  • 53.86 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.7856 34
  • 51 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PNP was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PNP Gene

Gene Tree for PNP (if available)
Gene Tree for PNP (if available)

Paralogs for PNP Gene Pseudogenes for PNP Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PNP: view

No data available for Paralogs for PNP Gene

Variants for PNP Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PNP Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 14 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1012562944 uncertain-significance, Purine-nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency 20,474,864(+) T/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs104894450 pathogenic, Purine-nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency, Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD) [MIM:613179] 20,474,870(+) A/G coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs104894451 pathogenic, likely-pathogenic, Purine-nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency, not provided, Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD) [MIM:613179] 20,476,432(+) G/A/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs104894452 pathogenic, Purine-nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency, Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD) [MIM:613179] 20,475,175(+) A/G coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs104894453 pathogenic, Purine-nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency, Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD) [MIM:613179] 20,474,555(+) G/A coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PNP Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv23438 CNV gain+loss 19812545

Variation tolerance for PNP Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 56% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 8.04; 84.28% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PNP Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PNP Gene

Disorders for PNP Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(21) MalaCards diseases for PNP Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency
  • nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency
adenosine deaminase deficiency
  • severe combined immunodeficiency, autosomal recessive, t cell-negative, b cell-negative, nk cell-negative, due to adenosine deaminase deficiency
lesch-nyhan syndrome
  • lns
paraphilia disorder
  • paraphilia
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PNP in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD) [MIM:613179]: A disorder that interrupts both the catabolism of inosine into hypoxanthine and guanosine into guanine, and leads to the accumulation of guanosine, inosine, and their deoxified by-products. The main clinical presentation is recurrent infections due to severe T-cell immunodeficiency. Some patients also have neurologic impairment. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:1384322, ECO:0000269 PubMed:3029074, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8931706}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for PNP

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PNP: view

No data available for Genatlas for PNP Gene

Publications for PNP Gene

  1. Genetic variation in genes associated with arsenic metabolism: glutathione S-transferase omega 1-1 and purine nucleoside phosphorylase polymorphisms in European and indigenous Americans. (PMID: 12928150) Yu L … Klimecki WT (Environmental health perspectives 2003) 3 4 22 58
  2. Two novel missense and frameshift mutations in exons 5 and 6 of the purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) gene in a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) patient. (PMID: 8931706) Pannicke U … Schwarz K (Human genetics 1996) 3 4 22 58
  3. Molecular analysis of mutations in a patient with purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. (PMID: 1384322) Aust MR … Markert ML (American journal of human genetics 1992) 3 4 22 58
  4. Three-dimensional structure of human erythrocytic purine nucleoside phosphorylase at 3.2 A resolution. (PMID: 2104852) Ealick SE … Parks RE (The Journal of biological chemistry 1990) 3 4 22 58
  5. Human purine nucleoside phosphorylase cDNA sequence and genomic clone characterization. (PMID: 6087295) Williams SR … Martin DW (Nucleic acids research 1984) 2 3 4 58

Products for PNP Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for PNP

Sources for PNP Gene