Aliases for PLA2G5 Gene
External Ids for PLA2G5 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PLA2G5 Gene
This gene is a member of the secretory phospholipase A2 family. It is located in a tightly-linked cluster of secretory phospholipase A2 genes on chromosome 1. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids to generate lysophospholipids and free fatty acids including arachidonic acid. It preferentially hydrolyzes linoleoyl-containing phosphatidylcholine substrates. Secretion of this enzyme is thought to induce inflammatory responses in neighboring cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found, but their full-length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for PLA2G5 Gene
PLA2G5 (Phospholipase A2 Group V) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PLA2G5 include Fleck Retina, Familial Benign and Late-Onset Retinal Degeneration. Among its related pathways are Ras signaling pathway and MAPK signaling pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 activity. An important paralog of this gene is PLA2G2A.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PLA2G5 Gene
Secretory calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 that primarily targets extracellular phospholipids (PubMed:8300559). Hydrolyzes the ester bond of the fatty acyl group attached at sn-2 position of phospholipids (phospholipase A2 activity), preferentially releasing fatty acyl groups with a low degree of unsaturation such as oleoyl (C18:1) and linoleoyl (C18:2) groups (PubMed:8300559, PubMed:14998370, PubMed:23533611). Hydrolyzes low-density lipoprotein (LDL) phospholipids releasing unsaturated fatty acids that drive macrophage polarization toward an M2 phenotype (By similarity). May act in an autocrine and paracrine manner. Contributes to lipid remodeling of cellular membranes at different subcellular locations and generation of lipid mediators involved in pathogen clearance. Cleaves sn-2 fatty acyl chains of cardiolipin, a major component of the inner membrane of mitochondria and bacterial membranes (PubMed:23533611). Promotes phagocytosis of bacteria in macrophages through production of lysophosphatidylethanolamines (PubMed:25725101). Displays bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria by directly hydrolyzing phospholipids of the bacterial membrane (PubMed:11694541). Promotes phagocytosis and killing of ingested fungi likely through controlling phagosome-lysosome fusion and phagosome maturation (By similarity). Plays a role in biosynthesis of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) in myeloid cells (PubMed:12124392, PubMed:12796497). In eosinophils, triggers perinuclear arachidonate release and LTC4 synthesis in a PLA2G4A-independent way (PubMed:12796497). In neutrophils, amplifies CysLTs biosynthesis initiated by PLA2G4A (PubMed:12124392). Promotes immune complex clearance in macrophages via stimulating synthesis of CysLTs, which act through CYSLTR1 to trigger phagocytosis (By similarity). May regulate antigen processing in antigen-presenting cells (By similarity). In pulmonary macrophages regulates IL33 production required for activation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (By similarity). May play a role in the biosynthesis of N-acyl ethanolamines that regulate energy metabolism. Hydrolyzes N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamines to N-acyl lysophosphatidylethanolamines, which are further cleaved by a lysophospholipase D to release N-acyl ethanolamines (PubMed:14998370).
Phospholipases are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic molecules. There are four major classes; phospholipase A, phospholipase B, phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C and phospholipase D.