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Aliases for PLA2G4D Gene

Aliases for PLA2G4D Gene

  • Phospholipase A2 Group IVD 2 3 4 5
  • Phospholipase A2, Group IVD (Cytosolic) 2 3
  • CPLA2-Delta 3 4
  • Phospholipase A2 Delta, Cytosolic 3
  • Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Delta 3
  • CPLA2delta 3
  • EC 4

External Ids for PLA2G4D Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PLA2G4D Gene

  • GC15M040075
  • GC15M040146
  • GC15M042359
  • GC15M019207

Summaries for PLA2G4D Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PLA2G4D Gene

  • The phospholipase A2 enzyme family, including PLA2G4D, catalyze the hydrolysis of glycerophospholipids at the sn-2 position and then liberate free fatty acids and lysophospholipids (Chiba et al., 2004 [PubMed 14709560]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

GeneCards Summary for PLA2G4D Gene

PLA2G4D (Phospholipase A2 Group IVD) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Ovarian steroidogenesis and Acyl chain remodelling of PE. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include phospholipase A2 activity and phospholipase activity. An important paralog of this gene is JMJD7-PLA2G4B.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLA2G4D Gene

  • Calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 that selectively hydrolyzes glycerophospholipids in the sn-2 position (PubMed:14709560). May have a substrate specificity for linoleic acid at the sn-2 position (PubMed:14709560).

Tocris Summary for PLA2G4D Gene

  • Phospholipases are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic molecules. There are four major classes; phospholipase A, phospholipase B, phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C and phospholipase D.

Additional gene information for PLA2G4D Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PLA2G4D Gene

Genomics for PLA2G4D Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PLA2G4D Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PLA2G4D Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH15J042094 Promoter 0.7 EPDnew 650.7 0.0 -23 0.1 CTCF KLF14 PLA2G4D PLA2G4F
GH15J042071 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 662 +22.7 22735 0.1 PLA2G4D PLA2G4F PLA2G4E-AS1 EHD4 PLA2G4E
GH15J042118 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 32.5 -24.6 -24624 0.9 MEIS2 MAX GATA3 MYNN ESR1 ZNF341 IKZF1 ZNF143 PLA2G4D PLA2G4F PLA2G4E EHD4 PLA2G4E-AS1 HAUS2
GH15J042056 Enhancer 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 11.5 +36.9 36900 2 PKNOX1 ATF1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 BRCA1 ZNF48 GLIS2 ZNF143 ATF7 ENSG00000260814 CDAN1 MGA LRRC57 PLA2G4D INO80 PLA2G4E EHD4 SNAP23 TMEM87A
GH15J041959 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.2 +133.5 133503 3.1 FOXA2 INSM2 RARA YY1 ZNF366 ATF7 CREM RXRA CEBPB ZEB2 PLA2G4D PLA2G4E RNU6-1169P MAPKBP1 GC15M041951 EHD4 EHD4-AS1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PLA2G4D on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PLA2G4D gene promoter:
  • AML1a
  • GCNF-2
  • GCNF-1
  • GCNF
  • XBP-1
  • IRF-1
  • PPAR-gamma1
  • PPAR-gamma2
  • MAZR
  • C/EBPalpha

Genomic Locations for PLA2G4D Gene

Genomic Locations for PLA2G4D Gene
27,551 bases
Minus strand
27,546 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PLA2G4D Gene

Genes around PLA2G4D on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PLA2G4D Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PLA2G4D Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PLA2G4D Gene

Proteins for PLA2G4D Gene

  • Protein details for PLA2G4D Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Cytosolic phospholipase A2 delta
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q8N176

    Protein attributes for PLA2G4D Gene

    818 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    91952 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=AAH34571.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PLA2G4D Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PLA2G4D Gene


neXtProt entry for PLA2G4D Gene

Post-translational modifications for PLA2G4D Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PLA2G4D Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for PLA2G4D
  • Boster Bio Antibodies for PLA2G4D

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PLA2G4D Gene

Domains & Families for PLA2G4D Gene

Gene Families for PLA2G4D Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PLA2G4D Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • The N-terminal C2 domain mediates the association with lipid membranes upon calcium binding (Probable). An additional second C2 domain may stand in between the C2 domain and the PLA2c domain (Probable).
  • The N-terminal C2 domain mediates the association with lipid membranes upon calcium binding (Probable). An additional second C2 domain may stand in between the C2 domain and the PLA2c domain (Probable).
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PLA2G4D: view

Function for PLA2G4D Gene

Molecular function for PLA2G4D Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 that selectively hydrolyzes glycerophospholipids in the sn-2 position (PubMed:14709560). May have a substrate specificity for linoleic acid at the sn-2 position (PubMed:14709560).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Phosphatidylcholine + H(2)O = 1-acylglycerophosphocholine + a carboxylate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Stimulated by cytosolic Ca(2+).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PLA2G4D Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PLA2G4D Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004622 lysophospholipase activity TAS --
GO:0004623 phospholipase A2 activity TAS --
GO:0008970 phosphatidylcholine 1-acylhydrolase activity TAS --
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLA2G4D: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PLA2G4D: view

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PLA2G4D Gene

Localization for PLA2G4D Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLA2G4D Gene

Cytoplasm, cytosol. Membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side. Note=Translocates to perinuclear membranes that may correspond to endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi in a calcium-dependent fashion. {ECO:0000250 UniProtKB:Q50L43}.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PLA2G4D gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 2
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PLA2G4D Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLA2G4D: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PLA2G4D Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PLA2G4D Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PLA2G4D: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PLA2G4D Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006644 phospholipid metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006654 phosphatidic acid biosynthetic process TAS --
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
GO:0009395 phospholipid catabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLA2G4D: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PLA2G4D Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PLA2G4D Gene

(10) Drugs for PLA2G4D Gene - From: HMDB and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Palmitic Acid Approved, Experimental Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 23
Stearic acid Approved, Experimental Pharma 0
Water Approved Pharma 0
alpha-linolenic acid Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist 0
calcium Approved Nutra 0

(11) Additional Compounds for PLA2G4D Gene - From: HMDB and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Arachidic acid
  • Arachidinic acid
  • Arachinsaeure
  • C20:0
  • CH3-[CH2]18-COOH
  • Eicosanoic acid
Heptadecanoic acid
  • 17:0
  • C17:0
  • CH3-[CH2]15-COOH
  • Heptadecoic acid
  • Heptadecylic acid
Heptadecanoyl CoA
  • Heptadecanoyl-coenzyme A
  • Heptadecanoate
  • Heptadecanoic acid
  • Heptadecanoic acid CoA
  • Heptadecanoyl coenzyme A
  • (2-Acetyloxy-3-octadec-9-enoxypropyl) 2-trimethylazaniumylethyl phosphate
  • 2-Acetyl-1-(9Z-octadecenyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
  • PC(O-18:1(9Z)/2:0)
Pentadecanoic acid
  • 15:00
  • C15
  • C15:0
  • N-Pentadecanoic acid
  • Pentadecylic acid

(5) Tocris Compounds for PLA2G4D Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AACOCF3 Phospholipase A2 inhibitor 149301-79-1
Edelfosine Selective PI-PLC inhibitor, also PAF receptor agonist 77286-66-9
m-3M3FBS Phospholipase C activator 200933-14-8
o-3M3FBS Inactive analog of m-3M3FBS (Cat. No. 1941) 313981-55-4
U 73122 Phospholipase C inhibitor 112648-68-7
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PLA2G4D: view

Transcripts for PLA2G4D Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PLA2G4D Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(2) Additional mRNA sequences :
(5) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(3) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for PLA2G4D Gene

Phospholipase A2, group IVD (cytosolic):
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PLA2G4D Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PLA2G4D Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PLA2G4D Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PLA2G4D Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PLA2G4D Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Vagina (x17.0), Skin - Sun Exposed (Lower leg) (x12.6), Skin - Not Sun Exposed (Suprapubic) (x12.4), and Cervix - Ectocervix (x4.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PLA2G4D Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Cervix (56.4) and Urine (10.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PLA2G4D Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PLA2G4D Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PLA2G4D Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PLA2G4D Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PLA2G4D Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in stratified squamous epithelia, such as those in skin and cervix, but not in other tissues. Strongly expressed in the upper spinous layer of the psoriatic epidermis, expressed weakly and discontinuously in atopic dermatitis and mycosis fungoides, and not detected in the epidermis of normal skin.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PLA2G4D Gene

  • Nervous system(4.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PLA2G4D: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PLA2G4D Gene

Orthologs for PLA2G4D Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PLA2G4D Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PLA2G4D 34 33
  • 97.78 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PLA2G4D 34 33
  • 86.5 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PLA2G4D 34 33
  • 85.81 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pla2g4d 16 34 33
  • 77.86 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pla2g4d 33
  • 77.66 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PLA2G4D 34
  • 66 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PLA2G4D 34
  • 55 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 34
  • 44 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 43 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 20 (a)
-- 34
  • 20 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PLA2G4D was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for PLA2G4D Gene

Gene Tree for PLA2G4D (if available)
Gene Tree for PLA2G4D (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PLA2G4D: view image

Paralogs for PLA2G4D Gene

Paralogs for PLA2G4D Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for PLA2G4D Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PLA2G4D: view

Variants for PLA2G4D Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PLA2G4D Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 15 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs563112904 benign, not specified 42,086,199(-) A/C intron_variant
rs1000003349 -- 42,090,691(-) G/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000105278 -- 42,085,264(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1000364717 -- 42,094,145(-) G/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000439759 -- 42,084,160(-) A/G intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PLA2G4D Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3636255 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1035998 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1043641 CNV gain 25217958
nsv436201 CNV deletion 17901297
nsv471683 CNV gain+loss 15918152
nsv832985 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for PLA2G4D Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 97.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 15.85; 97.40% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PLA2G4D Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLA2G4D Gene

Disorders for PLA2G4D Gene

Additional Disease Information for PLA2G4D

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for PLA2G4D Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PLA2G4D Gene

Publications for PLA2G4D Gene

  1. Cloning of a gene for a novel epithelium-specific cytosolic phospholipase A2, cPLA2delta, induced in psoriatic skin. (PMID: 14709560) Chiba H … Imai Y (The Journal of biological chemistry 2004) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. A family based study of the genetic association between the PLA2G4D gene and schizophrenia. (PMID: 16213696) Tao R … Wei J (Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids 2005) 3 4 44 58
  3. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 44 58
  4. [Study on the genetic association between the polymorphism of cytosolic phospholipase A2 family genes and schizophrenia]. (PMID: 18686860) Yu Q … Yu YQ (Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 2008) 3 44 58
  5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58

Products for PLA2G4D Gene

Sources for PLA2G4D Gene

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