Aliases for PLA2G4A Gene
External Ids for PLA2G4A Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for PLA2G4A Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PLA2G4A Gene
This gene encodes a member of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 group IV family. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids to release arachidonic acid which is subsequently metabolized into eicosanoids. Eicosanoids, including prostaglandins and leukotrienes, are lipid-based cellular hormones that regulate hemodynamics, inflammatory responses, and other intracellular pathways. The hydrolysis reaction also produces lysophospholipids that are converted into platelet-activating factor. The enzyme is activated by increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels and phosphorylation, resulting in its translocation from the cytosol and nucleus to perinuclear membrane vesicles. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2015]
GeneCards Summary for PLA2G4A Gene
PLA2G4A (Phospholipase A2 Group IVA) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PLA2G4A include Gastrointestinal Ulceration, Recurrent, With Dysfunctional Platelets and Cryptogenic Multifocal Ulcerous Stenosing Enteritis. Among its related pathways are DAG and IP3 signaling and Sweet Taste Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and phospholipase A2 activity. An important paralog of this gene is PLA2G4E.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PLA2G4A Gene
Has primarily calcium-dependent phospholipase and lysophospholipase activities, with a major role in membrane lipid remodeling and biosynthesis of lipid mediators of the inflammatory response (PubMed:7794891, PubMed:8619991, PubMed:8702602, PubMed:9425121, PubMed:10358058, PubMed:14709560, PubMed:16617059, PubMed:17472963, PubMed:27642067, PubMed:18451993). Plays an important role in embryo implantation and parturition through its ability to trigger prostanoid production (By similarity). Preferentially hydrolyzes the ester bond of the fatty acyl group attached at sn-2 position of phospholipids (phospholipase A2 activity) (PubMed:7794891, PubMed:8619991, PubMed:9425121, PubMed:10358058, PubMed:17472963, PubMed:18451993). Selectively hydrolyzes sn-2 arachidonoyl group from membrane phospholipids, providing the precursor for eicosanoid biosynthesis via the cyclooxygenase pathway (PubMed:18451993, PubMed:7794891, PubMed:9425121, PubMed:10358058, PubMed:17472963). In an alternative pathway of eicosanoid biosynthesis, hydrolyzes sn-2 fatty acyl chain of eicosanoid lysophopholipids to release free bioactive eicosanoids (PubMed:27642067). Hydrolyzes the ester bond of the fatty acyl group attached at sn-1 position of phospholipids (phospholipase A1 activity) only if an ether linkage rather than an ester linkage is present at the sn-2 position. This hydrolysis is not stereospecific (PubMed:7794891). Has calcium-independent phospholipase A2 and lysophospholipase activities in the presence of phosphoinositides (PubMed:12672805). Has O-acyltransferase activity. Catalyzes the transfer of fatty acyl chains from phospholipids to a primary hydroxyl group of glycerol (sn-1 or sn-3), potentially contributing to monoacylglycerol synthesis (PubMed:7794891).
Phospholipases are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic molecules. There are four major classes; phospholipase A, phospholipase B, phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C and phospholipase D.