This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the secreted phospholipase A2 family, whose members include the bee venom enzyme. The encoded enzyme functions in lipid metabolism and catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the sn-2 acyl bond of phospholipids to release arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids. This enzyme acts as a negative regulator of ciliogenesis, and may pl... See more...

Aliases for PLA2G3 Gene

Aliases for PLA2G3 Gene

  • Phospholipase A2 Group III 2 3 5
  • Phosphatidylcholine 2-Acylhydrolase 3 3 4
  • Group 3 Secretory Phospholipase A2 3 4
  • GIII-SPLA2 2 3
  • SPLA2-III 3 4
  • Phosphatidylcholine 2-Acylhydrolase GIII 3
  • Group III Secretory Phospholipase A2 4
  • Group III Secreted Phospholipase A2 3
  • Phospholipase A2, Group III 2
  • GIII SPLA2 4
  • EC 3.1.1.4 4
  • SPLA2III 3
  • PLA2G3 5

External Ids for PLA2G3 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PLA2G3 Gene

  • GC22M028226
  • GC22M029855
  • GC22M031530
  • GC22M014492

Summaries for PLA2G3 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PLA2G3 Gene

  • This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the secreted phospholipase A2 family, whose members include the bee venom enzyme. The encoded enzyme functions in lipid metabolism and catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the sn-2 acyl bond of phospholipids to release arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids. This enzyme acts as a negative regulator of ciliogenesis, and may play a role in cancer development by stimulating tumor cell growth and angiogenesis. This gene is associated with oxidative stress, and polymorphisms in this gene are linked to risk for Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

GeneCards Summary for PLA2G3 Gene

PLA2G3 (Phospholipase A2 Group III) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PLA2G3 include Alzheimer Disease. Among its related pathways are Sweet Taste Signaling and Acyl chain remodelling of PE. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 activity. An important paralog of this gene is PROCA1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PLA2G3 Gene

  • PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Shows an 11-fold preference for phosphatidylglycerol over phosphatidylcholine (PC). Preferential cleavage: 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) > 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-PC > 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-PC > 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-PE. Plays a role in ciliogenesis.

Tocris Summary for PLA2G3 Gene

  • Phospholipases are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic molecules. There are four major classes; phospholipase A, phospholipase B, phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C and phospholipase D.

Additional gene information for PLA2G3 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PLA2G3 Gene

Genomics for PLA2G3 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for PLA2G3 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PLA2G3 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PLA2G3

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PLA2G3 gene promoter:
  • AhR
  • AML1a
  • AP-4
  • AREB6
  • Arnt
  • E47
  • GATA-1
  • GATA-2
  • STAT3
  • Tal-1

Genomic Locations for PLA2G3 Gene

Genomic Locations for PLA2G3 Gene
chr22:31,134,807-31,140,508
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
5,702 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr22:31,530,793-31,536,593
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
5,801 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PLA2G3 Gene

Genes around PLA2G3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PLA2G3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PLA2G3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PLA2G3 Gene

Proteins for PLA2G3 Gene

  • Protein details for PLA2G3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9NZ20-PA2G3_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Group 3 secretory phospholipase A2
    Protein Accession:
    Q9NZ20
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O95768

    Protein attributes for PLA2G3 Gene

    Size:
    509 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    57167 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAD15617.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for PLA2G3 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PLA2G3 Gene

  • N-glycosylation does not affect the catalytic activity, but is required for proper secretion. A nonglycosylated form was observed in several cell types.
  • In several cell types, the N- and C-termini are cleaved off.
  • Glycosylation at Asn167, Asn280, Asn325, Asn396, and Asn439
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PLA2G3 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PLA2G3 Gene

Domains & Families for PLA2G3 Gene

Gene Families for PLA2G3 Gene

HGNC:
IUPHAR :
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for PLA2G3 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PLA2G3 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Phosphatidylcholine 2-acylhydrolase 3 (PA2G3_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9NZ20

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PA2G3_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the phospholipase A2 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the phospholipase A2 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PLA2G3: view

Function for PLA2G3 Gene

Molecular function for PLA2G3 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. Shows an 11-fold preference for phosphatidylglycerol over phosphatidylcholine (PC). Preferential cleavage: 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) > 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-PC > 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-PC > 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-PE. Plays a role in ciliogenesis.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O = a 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + a fatty acid + H(+); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:15801, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:28868, ChEBI:CHEBI:57643, ChEBI:CHEBI:58168; EC=3.1.1.4; Evidence={ECO:0000255|PROSITE-ProRule:PRU10035};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By IL1B/interleukin-1 beta and TNF in microvascular endothelial cells (at protein level).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Arachidonic acid release is markedly increased by glypican, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored heparan sulfate proteoglycan.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PLA2G3 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PLA2G3 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PLA2G3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004623 phospholipase A2 activity IEA --
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
GO:0047498 calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 activity TAS 10713052
GO:0102567 phospholipase A2 activity (consuming 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLA2G3: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PLA2G3: view

Animal Models for PLA2G3 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PLA2G3:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PLA2G3

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PLA2G3

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PLA2G3 Gene

Localization for PLA2G3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLA2G3 Gene

Secreted. Cell membrane. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome, centriole.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PLA2G3 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 5
lysosome 3
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
cytosol 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PLA2G3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space TAS 10713052
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005814 centriole IEA,IDA 20393563
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLA2G3: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PLA2G3 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PLA2G3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PLA2G3: view

Pathways by source for PLA2G3 Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for PLA2G3 Gene
  • Immune response CD16 signaling in NK cells
7 Qiagen pathways for PLA2G3 Gene
  • Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C
  • cAMP Pathway
  • Chemokine Signaling
  • DHA Signaling
  • Fc-EpsilonRI Pathway

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PLA2G3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001675 acrosome assembly IEA --
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006644 phospholipid metabolic process TAS 10713052
GO:0007288 sperm axoneme assembly IEA --
GO:0016042 lipid catabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLA2G3: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PLA2G3 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PLA2G3 Gene

(13) Drugs for PLA2G3 Gene - From: DGIdb, HMDB, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
linoleic acid Approved, Experimental Pharma Agonist, Full agonist, Activator, Pore Blocker, Channel blocker 0
Palmitic Acid Approved Pharma Agonist, Full agonist 27
Stearic acid Approved, Experimental Pharma 0
Water Approved Pharma 0
alpha-linolenic acid Approved, Investigational Nutra 0

(46) Additional Compounds for PLA2G3 Gene - From: HMDB and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Arachidic acid
  • Arachidinic acid
  • Arachinsaeure
  • C20:0
  • CH3-[CH2]18-COOH
  • Eicosanoic acid
506-30-9
Heptadecanoic acid
  • 17:0
  • C17:0
  • CH3-[CH2]15-COOH
  • Heptadecoic acid
  • Heptadecylic acid
506-12-7
Heptadecanoyl CoA
  • Heptadecanoyl-coenzyme A
  • Heptadecanoate
  • Heptadecanoic acid
  • Heptadecanoic acid CoA
  • Heptadecanoyl coenzyme A
3546-17-6
LysoPC(14:0/0:0)
  • 1-C14:0-Lysophosphatidylcholine betaine
  • 1-Myristoyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine
  • 1-Myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine betaine
  • 1-Tetradecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
  • 1-Tetradecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine betaine
20559-16-4
LysoPC(14:1(9Z))
  • 1-(9Z-Tetradecenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
  • 1-Myristoleoyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine
  • LPC 14:1(9Z)/0:0
  • LPC(14:1(9Z)/0:0)
  • LysoPC 14:1(9Z)/0:0

(5) Tocris Compounds for PLA2G3 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AACOCF3 Phospholipase A2 inhibitor 149301-79-1
Edelfosine Selective PI-PLC inhibitor, also PAF receptor agonist 77286-66-9
m-3M3FBS Phospholipase C activator 200933-14-8
o-3M3FBS Inactive analog of m-3M3FBS (Cat. No. 1941) 313981-55-4
U 73122 Phospholipase C inhibitor 112648-68-7
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PLA2G3: view

Transcripts for PLA2G3 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PLA2G3 Gene

1 REFSEQ mRNAs :
2 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
1 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PLA2G3

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PLA2G3 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PLA2G3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PLA2G3

Expression for PLA2G3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PLA2G3 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PLA2G3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Skin - Sun Exposed (Lower leg) (x11.5), Skin - Not Sun Exposed (Suprapubic) (x10.1), Esophagus - Mucosa (x9.7), Vagina (x5.5), and Cervix - Ectocervix (x5.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PLA2G3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Milk (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PLA2G3 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PLA2G3 Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PLA2G3

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PLA2G3 Gene:

Hs.149623

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PLA2G3 Gene:

Q9NZ20-PA2G3_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in kidney, heart, liver, and skeletal muscle. Also present in placenta and peripheral blood leukocytes. Not detected in brain, colon, thymus, spleen and small intestine. In lung, expressed in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages, but scarcely detected in alveolar epithelium, arterial walls and interstitial fibroblasts (at protein level). In joints of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, expressed in endothelial cells (at protein level). In normal heart, detected in some vessels. In myocardial tissues with acute infarction, expressed in vascular endothelial cells adjacent to cardiomyocytes and those in lesions with granulation. Expression in cardiomyocytes is scarce (at protein level). In uterus, breast and colon cancers, detected in tumor cells and neighboring microvascular endothelium, but not in normal glandular tissues (at protein level).

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PLA2G3 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PLA2G3: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PLA2G3 Gene

Orthologs for PLA2G3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PLA2G3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PLA2G3 30 31
  • 99.02 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PLA2G3 30 31
  • 84.62 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PLA2G3 30 31
  • 82.61 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pla2g3 30 17 31
  • 77.24 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pla2g3 30
  • 77.22 (n)
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PLA2G3 31
  • 38 (a)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PLA2G3 31
  • 35 (a)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PLA2G3 31
  • 50 (a)
OneToOne
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii zgc:123275 30
  • 46.42 (n)
PLA2G3 (1 of 2) 31
  • 24 (a)
OneToMany
PLA2G3 (2 of 2) 31
  • 20 (a)
OneToMany
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta GIIIspla2 31
  • 26 (a)
ManyToMany
CG30503 31
  • 25 (a)
ManyToMany
sPLA2 31
  • 24 (a)
ManyToMany
CG3009 31
  • 20 (a)
ManyToMany
CG42237 31
  • 14 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for PLA2G3 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PLA2G3 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PLA2G3 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PLA2G3 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PLA2G3: view image

Paralogs for PLA2G3 Gene

Paralogs for PLA2G3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PLA2G3: view

Variants for PLA2G3 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PLA2G3 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 22 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs2072193 - p.Ser322Arg
rs2074734 - p.Glu116Gln
rs2074735 - p.Leu157Val
rs2232176 - p.Ser70Ala
rs2232180 - p.His307Tyr

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for PLA2G3 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PLA2G3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1110864 OTHER inversion 24896259
nsv527382 CNV loss 19592680
nsv829173 CNV loss 20364138

Variation tolerance for PLA2G3 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 89.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 14.67; 96.59% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PLA2G3 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PLA2G3

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLA2G3 Gene

Disorders for PLA2G3 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for PLA2G3 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
alzheimer disease
  • ad
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for PLA2G3

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PLA2G3: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PLA2G3 Gene

Publications for PLA2G3 Gene

  1. Novel human secreted phospholipase A(2) with homology to the group III bee venom enzyme. (PMID: 10713052) Valentin E … Lambeau G (The Journal of biological chemistry 2000) 2 3 4
  2. Functional genomic screen for modulators of ciliogenesis and cilium length. (PMID: 20393563) Kim J … Gleeson JG (Nature 2010) 3 4
  3. Association of genetic variants with hemorrhagic stroke in Japanese individuals. (PMID: 20198315) Yoshida T … Yamada Y (International journal of molecular medicine 2010) 3 41
  4. Assessment of a polymorphism of SDK1 with hypertension in Japanese Individuals. (PMID: 19851296) Oguri M … Yamada Y (American journal of hypertension 2010) 3 41
  5. Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and patients response to dendritic cell-based HIV immuno-treatment. (PMID: 20056178) Segat L … Crovella S (Vaccine 2010) 3 41

Products for PLA2G3 Gene

  • Signalway ELISA kits for PLA2G3

Sources for PLA2G3 Gene