Aliases for PLA2G3 Gene
External Ids for PLA2G3 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PLA2G3 Gene
This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the secreted phospholipase A2 family, whose members include the bee venom enzyme. The encoded enzyme functions in lipid metabolism and catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the sn-2 acyl bond of phospholipids to release arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids. This enzyme acts as a negative regulator of ciliogenesis, and may play a role in cancer development by stimulating tumor cell growth and angiogenesis. This gene is associated with oxidative stress, and polymorphisms in this gene are linked to risk for Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
GeneCards Summary for PLA2G3 Gene
PLA2G3 (Phospholipase A2 Group III) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Ras signaling pathway and Glycerophospholipid biosynthesis. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 activity. An important paralog of this gene is PROCA1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PLA2G3 Gene
Secretory calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 that primarily targets extracellular phospholipids. Hydrolyzes the ester bond of the fatty acyl group attached at sn-2 position of phospholipids without apparent head group selectivity (PubMed:12522102, PubMed:18801741, PubMed:15863501, PubMed:28947740). Contributes to phospholipid remodeling of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Hydrolyzes LDL phospholipids releasing unsaturated fatty acids that regulate macrophage differentiation toward foam cells (PubMed:18801741). May act in an autocrine and paracrine manner (PubMed:23624557). Secreted by immature mast cells, acts on nearby fibroblasts upstream to PTDGS to synthesize prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), which in turn promotes mast cell maturation and degranulation via PTGDR (PubMed:23624557). Secreted by epididymal epithelium, acts on immature sperm cells within the duct, modulating the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acyl components of phosphatidylcholines required for acrosome assembly and sperm cell motility. Facilitates the replacement of fatty acyl chains in phosphatidylcholines in sperm membranes from omega-6 and omega-9 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Coupled to lipoxygenase pathway, may process omega-6 PUFAs to generate oxygenated lipid mediators in the male reproductive tract (By similarity). At pericentrosomal preciliary compartment, negatively regulates ciliogenesis likely by regulating endocytotic recycling of ciliary membrane protein (PubMed:20393563). Coupled to cyclooxygenase pathway provides arachidonate to generate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent immunomodulatory lipid in inflammation and tumorigenesis (PubMed:12522102, PubMed:15863501). At colonic epithelial barrier, preferentially hydrolyzes phospholipids having arachidonate and docosahexaenoate at sn-2 position, contributing to the generation of oxygenated metabolites involved in colonic stem cell homeostasis (PubMed:28947740). Releases C16:0 and C18:0 lysophosphatidylcholine subclasses from neuron plasma membranes and promotes neurite outgrowth and neuron survival (PubMed:17868035).
Phospholipases are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic molecules. There are four major classes; phospholipase A, phospholipase B, phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C and phospholipase D.