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Aliases for PLA2G2D Gene

Aliases for PLA2G2D Gene

  • Phospholipase A2 Group IID 2 3 5
  • Secretory-Type PLA, Stroma-Associated Homolog 3 4
  • Phosphatidylcholine 2-Acylhydrolase 2D 3 4
  • GIID SPLA2 3 4
  • SPLA2-IID 3 4
  • PLA2IID 3 4
  • SPLASH 3 4
  • Group IID Secretory Phospholipase A2 3
  • Secretory Phospholipase A2s 3
  • Phospholipase A2, Group IID 2
  • EC 4
  • SPLA2S 3

External Ids for PLA2G2D Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PLA2G2D Gene

  • GC01M020008
  • GC01M019473
  • GC01M019718
  • GC01M019907
  • GC01M020183
  • GC01M020311
  • GC01M020438
  • GC01M018684

Summaries for PLA2G2D Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PLA2G2D Gene

  • This gene encodes a secreted member of the phospholipase A2 family, and is found in a cluster of related family members on chromosome 1. Phospholipase A2 family members hydrolyze the sn-2 fatty acid ester bond of glycerophospholipids to produce lysophospholipids and free fatty acid. This gene may be involved in inflammation and immune response, and in weight loss associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

GeneCards Summary for PLA2G2D Gene

PLA2G2D (Phospholipase A2 Group IID) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PLA2G2D include Bladder Diverticulum and Hemopneumothorax. Among its related pathways are Acyl chain remodelling of PE and Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and phospholipase A2 activity. An important paralog of this gene is PLA2G2A.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLA2G2D Gene

  • PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. L-alpha-1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine is more efficiently hydrolyzed than the other phospholipids examined.

Tocris Summary for PLA2G2D Gene

  • Phospholipases are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic molecules. There are four major classes; phospholipase A, phospholipase B, phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C and phospholipase D.

Gene Wiki entry for PLA2G2D Gene

Additional gene information for PLA2G2D Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PLA2G2D Gene

Genomics for PLA2G2D Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PLA2G2D Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PLA2G2D Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J020184 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 650.2 -66.7 -66681 3.8 HDGF FOXA2 PKNOX1 SMAD1 MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A YY1 POLR2B UBXN10 UBXN10-AS1 PLA2G2D UBR4 HP1BP3
GH01J020119 Promoter/Enhancer 0.9 EPDnew Ensembl 650.7 +0.1 65 0.2 DPF2 SPI1 PLA2G2D LOC100419911
GH01J020093 Enhancer 0.4 ENCODE 12.3 +25.5 25503 0.2 HLF CEBPB PLA2G2D PLA2G2F PLA2G2C ENSG00000226664 LOC100419911
GH01J020080 Enhancer 1.1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 0.3 +38.6 38611 1.5 NR2F1 EBF1 MEF2B NR2F2 BCL11A TARDBP IKZF1 EED NBN MLLT1 PLA2G5 UBXN10 HTR6 NBL1 PLA2G2D LOC100419911
GH01J020124 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE 0.4 -5.4 -5372 1.2 ATF1 KLF17 BATF ZNF143 FOS RUNX3 SMARCA5 CEBPB JUNB ZEB2 AKR7A3 PLA2G2D PLA2G2F
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PLA2G2D on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PLA2G2D gene promoter:
  • AREB6
  • HNF-4alpha1
  • USF1
  • USF-1
  • GATA-2
  • Evi-1
  • GATA-3
  • PPAR-gamma1
  • PPAR-gamma2
  • AP-2rep

Genomic Locations for PLA2G2D Gene

Genomic Locations for PLA2G2D Gene
7,628 bases
Minus strand
7,619 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PLA2G2D Gene

Genes around PLA2G2D on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PLA2G2D Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PLA2G2D Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PLA2G2D Gene

Proteins for PLA2G2D Gene

  • Protein details for PLA2G2D Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Group IID secretory phospholipase A2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K2Z1
    • B1AEL9
    • Q9UK01

    Protein attributes for PLA2G2D Gene

    145 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    16546 Da
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for PLA2G2D Gene

Post-translational modifications for PLA2G2D Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn89
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PLA2G2D Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PLA2G2D Gene

Domains & Families for PLA2G2D Gene

Gene Families for PLA2G2D Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for PLA2G2D Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PLA2G2D Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the phospholipase A2 family.
  • Belongs to the phospholipase A2 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PLA2G2D: view

Function for PLA2G2D Gene

Molecular function for PLA2G2D Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides. L-alpha-1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine is more efficiently hydrolyzed than the other phospholipids examined.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Phosphatidylcholine + H(2)O = 1-acylglycerophosphocholine + a carboxylate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
pH dependence: Optimally active at neutral to alkaline pHs with 2 mM Ca(2+).;
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
phospholipase A2,group IID,secreted,predominantly expressed in the pancreas,spleen and less abundantly in the colon,thymus,placenta,small intestine and prostate,with several isoform putatively involved in inflammation and/or in the production of lipid mediators

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PLA2G2D Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PLA2G2D Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PLA2G2D Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004623 phospholipase A2 activity IEA,TAS --
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IEA --
GO:0008201 heparin binding IEA --
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
GO:0043395 heparan sulfate proteoglycan binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLA2G2D: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PLA2G2D: view

Animal Models for PLA2G2D Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PLA2G2D:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PLA2G2D

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PLA2G2D Gene

Localization for PLA2G2D Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLA2G2D Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PLA2G2D gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 2
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PLA2G2D Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLA2G2D: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PLA2G2D Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PLA2G2D Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PLA2G2D: view

Interacting Proteins for PLA2G2D Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PLA2G2D Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002361 CD4-positive, CD25-positive, alpha-beta regulatory T cell differentiation IEA --
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006644 phospholipid metabolic process IEA,TAS 10455175
GO:0006654 phosphatidic acid biosynthetic process TAS --
GO:0006954 inflammatory response TAS 10455175
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLA2G2D: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PLA2G2D Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PLA2G2D Gene

(14) Drugs for PLA2G2D Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
lauric acid Approved, Experimental Pharma Agonist, Target 0
Stearic acid Approved, Experimental Pharma Target 0
Clofazimine Approved, Investigational Pharma Tuberculosis drug 26
Palmitic Acid Approved, Experimental Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 23
Water Approved Pharma 0

(52) Additional Compounds for PLA2G2D Gene - From: HMDB, Novoseek, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Arachidic acid
  • Arachidinic acid
  • Arachinsaeure
  • C20:0
  • CH3-[CH2]18-COOH
  • Eicosanoic acid
Heptadecanoic acid
  • 17:0
  • C17:0
  • CH3-[CH2]15-COOH
  • Heptadecoic acid
  • Heptadecylic acid
Heptadecanoyl CoA
  • Heptadecanoyl-coenzyme A
  • Heptadecanoate
  • Heptadecanoic acid
  • Heptadecanoic acid CoA
  • Heptadecanoyl coenzyme A
  • 1-C14:0-Lysophosphatidylcholine betaine
  • 1-Myristoyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine
  • 1-Myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine betaine
  • 1-Tetradecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
  • 1-Tetradecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine betaine
  • 1-(9Z-Tetradecenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
  • 1-Myristoleoyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine
  • LPC 14:1(9Z)/0:0
  • LPC(14:1(9Z)/0:0)
  • LysoPC 14:1(9Z)/0:0

(5) Tocris Compounds for PLA2G2D Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AACOCF3 Phospholipase A2 inhibitor 149301-79-1
Edelfosine Selective PI-PLC inhibitor, also PAF receptor agonist 77286-66-9
m-3M3FBS Phospholipase C activator 200933-14-8
o-3M3FBS Inactive analog of m-3M3FBS (Cat. No. 1941) 313981-55-4
U 73122 Phospholipase C inhibitor 112648-68-7
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PLA2G2D: view

Transcripts for PLA2G2D Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PLA2G2D Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(7) Additional mRNA sequences :
(20) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for PLA2G2D Gene

Phospholipase A2, group IID:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PLA2G2D Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b
SP2: -

Relevant External Links for PLA2G2D Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PLA2G2D Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PLA2G2D Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PLA2G2D Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Spleen (x22.8) and Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (x11.5).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PLA2G2D Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PLA2G2D Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PLA2G2D Gene:

Tissue specificity: Broadly expressed.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PLA2G2D Gene

  • Pancreas(4.4)
  • Spleen(4.3)
  • Blood(4.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PLA2G2D: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PLA2G2D Gene

Orthologs for PLA2G2D Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PLA2G2D Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PLA2G2D 34 33
  • 99.54 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PLA2G2D 34 33
  • 83.68 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pla2g2d 16 34 33
  • 79.63 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pla2g2d 33
  • 78.7 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PLA2G2D4 34
  • 59 (a)
PLA2G2D3 34
  • 58 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PLA2G2D 34
  • 53 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PLA2G2D 34
  • 46 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 52 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PLA2G2D was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for PLA2G2D Gene

Gene Tree for PLA2G2D (if available)
Gene Tree for PLA2G2D (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PLA2G2D: view image

Paralogs for PLA2G2D Gene

(7) SIMAP similar genes for PLA2G2D Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PLA2G2D: view

Variants for PLA2G2D Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PLA2G2D Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000339247 -- 20,115,176(-) T/C intron_variant
rs1000373366 -- 20,120,134(-) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000777142 -- 20,113,708(-) A/G 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1000845743 -- 20,119,190(-) A/C intron_variant
rs1001301875 -- 20,114,784(-) /C intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PLA2G2D Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1003821 CNV deletion 20482838
nsv1003802 CNV loss 25217958
nsv545731 CNV gain 21841781
nsv5520 CNV deletion 18451855

Variation tolerance for PLA2G2D Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 76.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.05; 50.49% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PLA2G2D Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLA2G2D Gene

Disorders for PLA2G2D Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for PLA2G2D Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
bladder diverticulum
  • diverticulum - bladder
surfactant dysfunction
  • interstitial lung disease due to surfactant deficiency
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for PLA2G2D

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PLA2G2D: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PLA2G2D Gene

Publications for PLA2G2D Gene

  1. Cloning and characterization of novel mouse and human secretory phospholipase A(2)s. (PMID: 10455175) Ishizaki J … Hanasaki K (The Journal of biological chemistry 1999) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. A novel polymorphism in secretory phospholipase A2-IID is associated with body weight loss in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (PMID: 16002569) Takabatake N … Kubota I (American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 2005) 3 22 44 58
  3. Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and patients response to dendritic cell-based HIV immuno-treatment. (PMID: 20056178) Segat L … Crovella S (Vaccine 2010) 3 44 58
  4. Gly80Ser polymorphism of phospholipase A2-IID is associated with cytokine inducibility in A549 cells. (PMID: 19365107) Igarashi A … Kubota I (Respiration; international review of thoracic diseases 2009) 3 22 58
  5. Biochemistry and physiology of mammalian secreted phospholipases A2. (PMID: 18405237) Lambeau G … Gelb MH (Annual review of biochemistry 2008) 3 22 58

Products for PLA2G2D Gene

Sources for PLA2G2D Gene

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