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Aliases for PKP2 Gene

Aliases for PKP2 Gene

  • Plakophilin 2 2 3 5
  • Plakophilin-2 3
  • ARVD9 3

External Ids for PKP2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PKP2 Gene

  • GC12M033434
  • GC12M033020
  • GC12M032844
  • GC12M032835
  • GC12M032834
  • GC12M032943
  • GC12M032696

Summaries for PKP2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PKP2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the arm-repeat (armadillo) and plakophilin gene families. Plakophilin proteins contain numerous armadillo repeats, localize to cell desmosomes and nuclei, and participate in linking cadherins to intermediate filaments in the cytoskeleton. This gene product may regulate the signaling activity of beta-catenin. Two alternately spliced transcripts encoding two protein isoforms have been identified. A processed pseudogene with high similarity to this locus has been mapped to chromosome 12p13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PKP2 Gene

PKP2 (Plakophilin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PKP2 include Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia, Familial, 9 and Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy. Among its related pathways are Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and Keratinization. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include binding and protein kinase C binding. An important paralog of this gene is CTNND2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PKP2 Gene

  • May play a role in junctional plaques.

Gene Wiki entry for PKP2 Gene

Additional gene information for PKP2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PKP2 Gene

Genomics for PKP2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PKP2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PKP2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH12J032891 Promoter/Enhancer 2.6 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 660.8 +1.4 1377 8.7 FOXA2 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF213 FOS KLF13 PKP2 LOC100420981 RPL35AP27
GH12J032873 Enhancer 0.6 ENCODE dbSUPER 17.2 +21.5 21480 2.8 CEBPB CEBPG PKP2 RPL35AP27
GH12J032843 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.5 +53.1 53075 1.1 PRDM6 SCRT2 CEBPB PKP2 GC12P032848 ENSG00000274976
GH12J032856 Enhancer 0.4 dbSUPER 16.6 +39.7 39731 0.7 ZNF121 ZNF18 PKP2 GC12P032861 GC12P032848
GH12J032916 Enhancer 1 FANTOM5 ENCODE 6.2 -22.7 -22666 5.6 FEZF1 RAD21 RFX5 ZNF335 ZNF121 FOS RCOR1 ZNF654 CEBPB REST GC12P032918 PKP2 GC12P032966
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PKP2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for PKP2 Gene

Genomic Locations for PKP2 Gene
106,102 bases
Minus strand
106,102 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PKP2 Gene

Genes around PKP2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PKP2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PKP2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PKP2 Gene

Proteins for PKP2 Gene

  • Protein details for PKP2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A0AV37
    • B8QFA1
    • B8QGS6
    • B8QGS7
    • D3DUW9
    • Q4VC01
    • Q99960

    Protein attributes for PKP2 Gene

    881 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    97415 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with DSC2. Interacts with JUP and desmoplakin/DSP.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PKP2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PKP2 Gene


neXtProt entry for PKP2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PKP2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PKP2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PKP2 Gene

Domains & Families for PKP2 Gene

Gene Families for PKP2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for PKP2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the beta-catenin family.
  • Belongs to the beta-catenin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PKP2: view

Function for PKP2 Gene

Molecular function for PKP2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May play a role in junctional plaques.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
plakophilin 2,component of karyoplasm and desmosomal plaque protein of desmosomes in stratified epithelia,also expressed in the nucleus of non epithelial cells, homologous to Drosophila Armadillo segment polarity gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PKP2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PKP2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003674 molecular_function ND --
GO:0005080 protein kinase C binding IPI 18474624
GO:0005488 binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10852826
GO:0017080 sodium channel regulator activity ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PKP2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PKP2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for PKP2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for PKP2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PKP2:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for PKP2 Gene

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PKP2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PKP2 Gene

Localization for PKP2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PKP2 Gene

Nucleus. Cell junction, desmosome. Note=Nuclear and associated with desmosomes.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PKP2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 5
cytoskeleton 4
cytosol 3

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cell Junctions (4)
  • Nucleoplasm (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PKP2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001533 cornified envelope TAS --
GO:0005634 nucleus NAS 8922383
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005882 intermediate filament ISS,IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PKP2: view

Pathways & Interactions for PKP2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PKP2: view

Pathways by source for PKP2 Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for PKP2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PKP2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002159 desmosome assembly IMP 18474624
GO:0007155 cell adhesion IEA --
GO:0007507 heart development ISS,IEA --
GO:0010765 positive regulation of sodium ion transport ISS --
GO:0031424 keratinization TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PKP2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PKP2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PKP2 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for PKP2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PKP2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PKP2 Gene

Plakophilin 2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PKP2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PKP2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15a · 15b
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: -
SP6: -

Relevant External Links for PKP2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PKP2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PKP2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PKP2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart - Left Ventricle (x19.8) and Heart - Atrial Appendage (x7.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PKP2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart (35.9), Fetal heart (11.0), and Salivary gland (6.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PKP2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PKP2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PKP2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PKP2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PKP2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Detected in heart right ventricle (at protein level). Widely expressed. Found at desmosomal plaques in simple and stratified epithelia and in non-epithelial tissues such as myocardium and lymph node follicles. In most stratified epithelia found in the desmosomes of the basal cell layer and seems to be absent from suprabasal strata.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PKP2 Gene

  • Liver(4.4)
  • Nervous system(4.3)
  • Heart(3.9)
  • Muscle(3.3)
  • Intestine(3.1)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PKP2 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • nervous
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • head
  • heart
  • heart valve
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • red blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PKP2: view

Orthologs for PKP2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PKP2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PKP2 34 33
  • 98.81 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PKP2 34 33
  • 88.72 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PKP2 34 33
  • 87.83 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 84 (a)
-- 34
  • 77 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pkp2 16 34 33
  • 81.13 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pkp2 33
  • 80.92 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PKP2 34
  • 76 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PKP2 34 33
  • 67.07 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PKP2 34
  • 56 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pkp2 33
  • 59.19 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pkp2 34 33
  • 50.13 (n)
Species where no ortholog for PKP2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PKP2 Gene

Gene Tree for PKP2 (if available)
Gene Tree for PKP2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PKP2: view image

Paralogs for PKP2 Gene

Paralogs for PKP2 Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for PKP2 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

  • B8QGS9_HUMAN Pseudogenes for PKP2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PKP2: view

Variants for PKP2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PKP2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1046116 benign, likely-benign, not specified, Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, Cardiovascular phenotype, Cardiomyopathy, ARVC 32,869,000(-) A/G coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1046138 likely-benign, Cardiomyopathy, ARVC 32,791,228(-) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1046150 likely-benign, Cardiomyopathy, ARVC 32,790,993(-) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1046154 likely-benign, Cardiomyopathy, ARVC 32,790,861(-) C/A 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1060501182 pathogenic, Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, type 9 32,824,094(-) A/ coding_sequence_variant, frameshift

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PKP2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv796n106 CNV deletion 24896259
esv1043456 CNV deletion 17803354
esv2485280 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2745751 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2745753 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3252829 CNV deletion 24192839
esv3549028 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3629089 CNV loss 21293372
esv4479 CNV loss 18987735
esv8190 CNV loss 19470904
nsv1070523 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv516937 CNV loss 19592680
nsv526287 CNV loss 19592680
nsv958653 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv976595 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for PKP2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 81.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 6.19; 75.97% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PKP2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PKP2 Gene

Disorders for PKP2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(15) MalaCards diseases for PKP2 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial, 9
  • arvd9
arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
  • arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia
familial isolated arrhythmogenic ventricular dysplasia, right dominant form
  • familial isolated arrhythmogenic ventricular cardiomyopathy, classic form
familial isolated arrhythmogenic ventricular dysplasia, biventricular form
  • familial isolated arrhythmogenic ventricular cardiomyopathy, biventricular form
familial isolated arrhythmogenic ventricular dysplasia, left dominant form
  • familial isolated arrhythmogenic ventricular cardiomyopathy, left dominant form
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PKP2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial, 9 (ARVD9) [MIM:609040]: A congenital heart disease characterized by infiltration of adipose and fibrous tissue into the right ventricle and loss of myocardial cells, resulting in ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15489853, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19533476, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19863551, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19955750, ECO:0000269 PubMed:20031617, ECO:0000269 PubMed:22781308}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for PKP2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PKP2: view

No data available for Genatlas for PKP2 Gene

Publications for PKP2 Gene

  1. Missense variants in plakophilin-2 in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy patients--disease-causing or innocent bystanders? (PMID: 19955750) Christensen AH … Svendsen JH (Cardiology 2010) 3 4 22 44 58
  2. Comprehensive desmosome mutation analysis in north americans with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. (PMID: 20031617) den Haan AD … Judge DP (Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics 2009) 3 4 22 44 58
  3. Plakophilins 2a and 2b: constitutive proteins of dual location in the karyoplasm and the desmosomal plaque. (PMID: 8922383) Mertens C … Franke WW (The Journal of cell biology 1996) 2 3 4 22 58
  4. Role of genetic testing in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia. (PMID: 19863551) Barahona-Dussault C … Brugada R (Clinical genetics 2010) 3 4 44 58
  5. Mutation of plakophilin-2 gene in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. (PMID: 19302745) Wu SL … Deng M (Chinese medical journal 2009) 3 22 44 58

Products for PKP2 Gene

Sources for PKP2 Gene

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