This gene encodes a protein involved in glycolysis. The encoded protein is a pyruvate kinase that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to ADP, generating ATP and pyruvate. This protein has been shown to interact with thyroid hormone and may mediate cellular metabolic effects induced by thyroid hormones. This protein has been found to bind Opa pr... See more...

Aliases for PKM Gene

Aliases for PKM Gene

  • Pyruvate Kinase M1/2 2 3 5
  • Cytosolic Thyroid Hormone-Binding Protein 3 4
  • Thyroid Hormone-Binding Protein 1 3 4
  • Pyruvate Kinase Muscle Isozyme 3 4
  • Pyruvate Kinase, Muscle 2 3
  • Pyruvate Kinase 2/3 3 4
  • Pyruvate Kinase PKM 3 4
  • Tumor M2-PK 3 4
  • EC 2.7.1.40 4 54
  • CTHBP 3 4
  • OIP-3 3 4
  • THBP1 3 4
  • PKM2 3 4
  • OIP3 3 4
  • PK3 3 4
  • P58 3 4
  • Thyroid Hormone-Binding Protein, Cytosolic 3
  • Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 30 3
  • Pyruvate Kinase Isozymes M1/M2 3
  • OPA-Interacting Protein 3 3
  • Opa-Interacting Protein 3 4
  • PK, Muscle Type 3
  • HEL-S-30 3
  • TCB 3
  • PK2 4

External Ids for PKM Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PKM Gene

  • PKM2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PKM Gene

  • GC15M072492

Summaries for PKM Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PKM Gene

  • This gene encodes a protein involved in glycolysis. The encoded protein is a pyruvate kinase that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to ADP, generating ATP and pyruvate. This protein has been shown to interact with thyroid hormone and may mediate cellular metabolic effects induced by thyroid hormones. This protein has been found to bind Opa protein, a bacterial outer membrane protein involved in gonococcal adherence to and invasion of human cells, suggesting a role of this protein in bacterial pathogenesis. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding a few distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PKM Gene

PKM (Pyruvate Kinase M1/2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PKM include Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Of Red Cells and Acute Diarrhea. Among its related pathways are Pyruvate metabolism and G-protein signaling G-Protein alpha-i signaling cascades. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include MHC class II protein complex binding. An important paralog of this gene is PKLR.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PKM Gene

  • Glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP, generating ATP. Stimulates POU5F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Plays a general role in caspase independent cell death of tumor cells. The ratio between the highly active tetrameric form and nearly inactive dimeric form determines whether glucose carbons are channeled to biosynthetic processes or used for glycolytic ATP production. The transition between the 2 forms contributes to the control of glycolysis and is important for tumor cell proliferation and survival (PubMed:17308100, PubMed:18191611, PubMed:21620138). Promotes in a STAT1-dependent manner, the expression of the immune checkpoint protein CD274 in ARNTL/BMAL1-deficient macrophages (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for PKM Gene

Additional gene information for PKM Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PKM Gene

Genomics for PKM Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PKM Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PKM Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PKM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for PKM Gene

Genomic Locations for PKM Gene
chr15:72,199,029-72,231,822
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
32,794 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr15:72,491,370-72,524,164
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
32,795 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PKM Gene

Genes around PKM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PKM Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PKM Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PKM Gene

Proteins for PKM Gene

  • Protein details for PKM Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P14618-KPYM_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Pyruvate kinase PKM
    Protein Accession:
    P14618
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NFK3
    • B2R5N8
    • B3KRY0
    • B4DFX8
    • B4DUU6
    • P14786
    • Q53GK4
    • Q96E76
    • Q9BWB5
    • Q9UCV6
    • Q9UPF2

    Protein attributes for PKM Gene

    Size:
    531 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    57937 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Cofactor:
    Name=K(+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29103;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer and homotetramer. Exists as a monomer in the absence of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), and reversibly associates to form a homotetramer in the presence of FBP. The monomeric form binds T3. Tetramer formation induces pyruvate kinase activity. The tetrameric form has high affinity for the substrate and is associated within the glycolytic enzyme complex. Exists in a nearly inactive dimeric form in tumor cells and the dimeric form has less affinity for the substrate. Binding to certain oncoproteins such as HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein can trigger dimerization. FBP stimulates the formation of tetramers from dimers. Interacts with HERC1, POU5F1 and PML. Interacts (isoform M2) with EGLN3; the interaction hydroxylates PKM under hypoxia and enhances binding to HIF1A. Interacts (isoform M2) with HIF1A; the interaction is enhanced by binding of EGLN3, promoting enhanced transcription activity under hypoxia. Interacts (isoform M2, but not isoform M1) with TRIM35; this interaction prevents FGFR1-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation (PubMed:25263439). Interacts with JMJD8 (PubMed:27199445).
    Miscellaneous:
    • There are 4 isozymes of pyruvate kinase in mammals (L, R, M1, M2) encoded by 2 different genes: PKLR and PKM. The L and R isozymes are generated from the PKLR by differential splicing of RNA; the M1 and M2 forms are produced from the PKM gene by differential splicing. L type is major isozyme in the liver, R is found in red cells, M1 is the main form in muscle, heart and brain, and M2 is found in early fetal tissues as well as in most cancer cells.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=BAG57589.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PKM Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PKM Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PKM Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PKM Gene

P14618:
  • VDMVFASFIR
  • GKARGFFK
  • AAMADTFLEH
  • EIPAEKV
  • LEHMCRL
  • ICATQMLESM
  • QTARQAHLYRG
  • GPASRSV
  • GAVEASFKC
  • IAREAEAA
  • KGVNLPG
  • RYRPRAPIIAVTRN
  • VANAVLDG
  • IKIISKIE
  • DDGLISL
  • SDGIMVARGD
  • VDLPAVS
  • MVARGDLG
  • NFSHGTH
  • LWLDYKNICKVVEVGSK
  • ATESFASDPI
  • EVENGGSLGS
  • ATQMLESMI
  • NAVLDGAD
  • PRPTRAE
  • LDTKGPEIR
  • TEVENGG
  • GSKKGVN
  • RLNFSHG
  • MLSGETA
  • TGWRPGSG

Post-translational modifications for PKM Gene

  • ISGylated.
  • Under hypoxia, hydroxylated by EGLN3.
  • Acetylation at Lys-305 is stimulated by high glucose concentration, it decreases enzyme activity and promotes its lysosomal-dependent degradation via chaperone-mediated autophagy.
  • FGFR1-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation is reduced by interaction with TRIM35.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys3, Lys62, Lys66, Lys89, Lys115, Lys125, Lys151, Lys166, Lys188, Lys207, Lys266, Lys270, Lys322, Lys367, Lys475, and Lys498
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for PKM Gene

Gene Families for PKM Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PKM Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Pyruvate kinase (B4DUU6_HUMAN)
  • Pyruvate kinase (E7EUJ4_HUMAN)
  • Pyruvate kinase (E7EUQ8_HUMAN)
  • Pyruvate kinase (E9PF79_HUMAN)
  • p58 (KPYM_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P14618

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

KPYM_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the pyruvate kinase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the pyruvate kinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PKM: view

Function for PKM Gene

Molecular function for PKM Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP, generating ATP. Stimulates POU5F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Plays a general role in caspase independent cell death of tumor cells. The ratio between the highly active tetrameric form and nearly inactive dimeric form determines whether glucose carbons are channeled to biosynthetic processes or used for glycolytic ATP production. The transition between the 2 forms contributes to the control of glycolysis and is important for tumor cell proliferation and survival (PubMed:17308100, PubMed:18191611, PubMed:21620138). Promotes in a STAT1-dependent manner, the expression of the immune checkpoint protein CD274 in ARNTL/BMAL1-deficient macrophages (By similarity).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + pyruvate = ADP + H(+) + phosphoenolpyruvate; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:18157, ChEBI:CHEBI:15361, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:58702, ChEBI:CHEBI:456216; EC=2.7.1.40; Evidence={ECO:0000269 PubMed:15996096, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1854723};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Isoform M2 is allosterically activated by D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP). Inhibited by oxalate and 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3). The activity of the tetrameric form is inhibited by PML. Selective binding to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides releases the allosteric activator FBP, leading to inhibition of PKM enzymatic activity, this diverts glucose metabolites from energy production to anabolic processes when cells are stimulated by certain growth factors. Glycolytic flux are highly dependent on de novo biosynthesis of serine and glycine, and serine is a natural ligand and allosteric activator of isoform M2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=2.7 mM for phosphoenolpyruvate (at 32 degrees Celsius, pH 8.0) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15996096, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1854723}; KM=0.17 mM for phosphoenolpyruvate (in the presence of 2 mM D- fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), at 32 degrees Celsius, pH 8.0) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15996096, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1854723}; KM=0.34 mM for ADP (at 32 degrees Celsius, pH 8.0) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15996096, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1854723}; KM=0.24 mM for ADP (in the presence of 2 mM FBP, at 32 degrees Celsius, pH 8.0) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15996096, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1854723}; KM=0.13 mM for phosphoenolpyruvate (in the presence of 2 mM FBP, at 25 degrees Celsius) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15996096, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1854723}; KM=0.63 mM for ADP (in the presence of 2 mM FBP, at 25 degrees Celsius) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15996096, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1854723}; pH dependence: Optimum pH for T3 binding is 6.0-6.5. Increase in pH causes T3 binding to drop, does not bind T3 above pH 9.0 or below pH 5.0. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15996096, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1854723};

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PKM Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PKM Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PKM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding IEA --
GO:0003723 RNA binding HDA 22658674
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0004743 pyruvate kinase activity TAS,IEA 2040271
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12620389
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PKM: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PKM: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for PKM Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PKM

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PKM

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PKM

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PKM Gene

Localization for PKM Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PKM Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Translocates to the nucleus in response to different apoptotic stimuli. Nuclear translocation is sufficient to induce cell death that is caspase independent, isoform-specific and independent of its enzymatic activity.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PKM gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
extracellular 4
plasma membrane 3
mitochondrion 2
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PKM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA,IDA 17308100
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA,IBA 18298799
GO:0005739 mitochondrion HDA 20833797
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PKM: view

Pathways & Interactions for PKM Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PKM: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P14618-KPYM_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Carbohydrate degradation; glycolysis; pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate: step 5/5.

SIGNOR curated interactions for PKM Gene

Activates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PKM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia IEA --
GO:0001889 liver development IEA --
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006096 glycolytic process IBA,IEA 21873635
GO:0006754 ATP biosynthetic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PKM: view

Drugs & Compounds for PKM Gene

(35) Drugs for PKM Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Pyruvic acid Approved, Investigational Nutra Target 0
Acyclovir Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate 113
Copper Approved, Investigational Pharma Target 227
Carbon dioxide Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma 0
Magnesium Approved, Experimental, Investigational Pharma 0

(11) Additional Compounds for PKM Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine 5'-diphosphate
  • ADENOSINE-5'-diphosphATE
  • H3ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist, Partial agonist, Antagonist, Gating inhibitor 58-64-0
dADP
  • 2'-Deoxyadenosine-5'-diphosphate
  • Deoxyadenosine diphosphate
2793-06-8
dGDP
  • 2'-Deoxyguanosine 5'-diphosphate
  • Deoxyguanosine diphosphate
  • 2'-Deoxyguanosine 5'-diphosphoric acid
  • Deoxyguanosine diphosphoric acid
  • 2'-Deoxy-GDP
3493-09-2
IDP
  • 5'-IDP
  • Inosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate)
  • Inosine 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate)
  • Inosine 5'-diphosphate
  • Inosine 5'-pyrophosphate
86-04-4
inosine triphosphate
  • 2'-Inosine-5'-triphosphate
  • Inosine 5'-triphosphate
  • Inosine tripolyphosphate
  • O(5')-(Tetrahydroxytriphosphoryl)inosine
  • 2'-Inosine-5'-triphosphoric acid
132-06-9

(1) ApexBio Compounds for PKM Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
DASA-58 activator of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) 1203494-49-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PKM: view

Transcripts for PKM Gene

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PKM

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PKM

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PKM Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12a · 12b ^
SP1: - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: - - - - -
SP6: - -
SP7: -
SP8: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP9: -
SP10:
SP11:
SP12: - - -
SP13:

ExUns: 13a · 13b ^ 14a · 14b · 14c · 14d ^ 15
SP1: - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - -
SP4:
SP5: - - -
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:

Relevant External Links for PKM Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PKM
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PKM

Expression for PKM Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PKM Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PKM Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone marrow stromal cell (9.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PKM Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PKM Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PKM Gene:

PKM

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PKM Gene:

Hs.534770

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PKM Gene:

P14618-KPYM_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Specifically expressed in proliferating cells, such as embryonic stem cells, embryonic carcinoma cells, as well as cancer cells.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PKM Gene

  • Spleen(4.1)
  • Thyroid gland(4)
  • Lymph node(2.8)
  • Adrenal gland(2.3)
  • Bone marrow(2.3)
  • Gall bladder(2.2)
  • Eye(5)
  • Kidney(5)
  • Liver(5)
  • Skin(5)
  • Nervous system(5)
  • Blood(4.9)
  • Intestine(4.9)
  • Lung(4.9)
  • Pancreas(4.9)
  • Muscle(4.7)
  • Heart(4.4)
  • Bone(4.3)
  • Stomach(4.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PKM: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PKM Gene

Orthologs for PKM Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for PKM Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PKM 33 32
  • 99.67 (n)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PKM 33
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PKM2 33
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
PKM 32
  • 88.83 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 33
  • 91 (a)
OneToMany
PKM 32
  • 89.57 (n)
-- 33
  • 83 (a)
OneToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pkm 32
  • 90.02 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pkm 17 33 32
  • 87.19 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 33
  • 72 (a)
OneToMany
-- 33
  • 65 (a)
OneToMany
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PKM 33
  • 87 (a)
OneToOne
PKM2 32
  • 80.19 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PKM 33
  • 87 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pkm 32
  • 77.69 (n)
Str.373 32
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pkma 33 32
  • 75.37 (n)
OneToMany
pkmb 33
  • 66 (a)
OneToMany
pkm2 32
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.7227 32
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta PyK 33 32
  • 65.3 (n)
ManyToMany
CG2964 33
  • 40 (a)
ManyToMany
CG7069 33
  • 29 (a)
ManyToMany
CG7362 33
  • 22 (a)
ManyToMany
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP004596 32
  • 61.02 (n)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pyk-1 33 32
  • 57.53 (n)
ManyToMany
pyk-2 33
  • 57 (a)
ManyToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes CDC19 35 33 32
  • 55.42 (n)
PYK2 33
  • 46 (a)
ManyToMany
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F23397g 32
  • 54.82 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADR368W 32
  • 54.3 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G63680 32
  • 53.35 (n)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.1458 32
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os04g0677500 32
  • 54.59 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 33
  • 68 (a)
OneToMany
Cin.4710 32
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes pyk1 32
  • 58.85 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06075 32
  • 57.53 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.4710 32
Species where no ortholog for PKM was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PKM Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PKM (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PKM (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PKM: view image

Paralogs for PKM Gene

Paralogs for PKM Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for PKM Gene using alignment to 9 proteins:

  • KPYM_HUMAN
  • H3BN34_HUMAN
  • H3BQ34_HUMAN
  • H3BQZ3_HUMAN
  • H3BT25_HUMAN
  • H3BTJ2_HUMAN
  • H3BTN5_HUMAN
  • H3BU13_HUMAN
  • H3BUW1_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PKM: view

Variants for PKM Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PKM Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 15 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs11558368 likely-benign, not specified 72,202,513(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant, synonymous_variant
rs879255367 uncertain-significance, not specified 72,208,664(-) T/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs10514 benign, not specified 72,209,800(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant, synonymous_variant
rs1000107033 -- 72,209,197(-) T/C intron_variant
rs1000246117 -- 72,200,374(-) G/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PKM Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv479183 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv833051 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for PKM Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 18.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.84; 17.66% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PKM Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PKM
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PKM

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No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PKM Gene

Disorders for PKM Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(7) MalaCards diseases for PKM Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PKM in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PKM: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PKM Gene

Publications for PKM Gene

  1. Pyruvate kinase isozyme type M2 (PKM2) interacts and cooperates with Oct-4 in regulating transcription. (PMID: 18191611) Lee J … Kim J (The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 2008) 3 4 23 56
  2. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a phosphotyrosine-binding protein. (PMID: 18337815) Christofk HR … Cantley LC (Nature 2008) 3 4 23 56
  3. Modulation of M2-type pyruvate kinase activity by the cytoplasmic PML tumor suppressor protein. (PMID: 18298799) Shimada N … Ishii S (Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2008) 3 4 23 56
  4. Nuclear translocation of the tumor marker pyruvate kinase M2 induces programmed cell death. (PMID: 17308100) Steták A … Ullrich A (Cancer research 2007) 3 4 26 56
  5. Structural basis for tumor pyruvate kinase M2 allosteric regulation and catalysis. (PMID: 15996096) Dombrauckas JD … Mesecar AD (Biochemistry 2005) 3 4 23 56

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