Aliases for PIP Gene

Aliases for PIP Gene

  • Prolactin Induced Protein 2 3 5
  • Prolactin-Inducible Protein 2 3 4
  • GCDFP-15 2 3 4
  • GCDFP15 2 3 4
  • GPIP4 2 3 4
  • Gross Cystic Disease Fluid Protein 15 3 4
  • Secretory Actin-Binding Protein 3 4
  • Prolactin-Induced Protein 2 4
  • SABP 3 4
  • Gp17 4
  • PIP 5

External Ids for PIP Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PIP Gene

  • GC07P141155
  • GC07P142221
  • GC07P142300
  • GC07P142346
  • GC07P142539
  • GC07P142829
  • GC07P137167

Summaries for PIP Gene

GeneCards Summary for PIP Gene

PIP (Prolactin Induced Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PIP include Breast Cyst and Microglandular Adenosis. Among its related pathways are PEDF Induced Signaling and Akt Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include actin binding.

Gene Wiki entry for PIP Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC Summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PIP Gene

Genomics for PIP Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for PIP Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH07J143132 Promoter/Enhancer 0.5 EPDnew Ensembl 250.7 -0.7 -676 2 PIP KEL TMEM139 TCAF2 piR-51878-036 lnc-TAS2R40-1 OR6V1
GH07J143126 Enhancer 0.6 Ensembl ENCODE 0.7 -4.8 -4776 4.6 JUND GABPA CTBP1 SPI1 FOS piR-51878-036 KEL LLCFC1 TRPV5 TMEM139 TCAF2 PIP piR-46847-256 lnc-TAS2R40-1 OR6V1
GH07J143120 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl ENCODE 0.4 -11.2 -11233 1.3 JUND PKNOX1 OR6V1 TAS2R39 OR9P1P KEL LLCFC1 TRPV5 TMEM139 TCAF2 GSTK1 lnc-TAS2R40-1
GH07J143181 Enhancer 0.3 Ensembl 0.3 +49.3 49324 0.4 KDM1A MNT TAS2R39 HSALNG0061943 PIP lnc-TAS2R40-1
GH07J143183 Enhancer 0.3 Ensembl 0.2 +51.2 51224 0.6 ATF4 TAS2R39 HSALNG0061943 PIP lnc-TAS2R40-1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PIP on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PIP

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PIP gene promoter:
  • FOXL1
  • Ik-3
  • MyoD
  • NCX
  • p53
  • STAT5A
  • TBP

Genomic Locations for PIP Gene

Latest Assembly
7,663 bases
Plus strand

Previous Assembly
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
7,663 bases
Plus strand

(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
7,670 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PIP Gene

Genes around PIP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PIP Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PIP Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PIP Gene

Proteins for PIP Gene

  • Protein details for PIP Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Prolactin-inducible protein
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A0A963
    • A0A9C3
    • A0A9F3
    • A4D2I1

    Protein attributes for PIP Gene

    146 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    16572 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer. Interacts with AZGP1.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PIP Gene

neXtProt entry for PIP Gene

Post-translational modifications for PIP Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn105
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect

Other Protein References for PIP Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PIP Gene

Domains & Families for PIP Gene

Gene Families for PIP Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for PIP Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PIP Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • gp17 (PIP_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the PIP family.
  • Belongs to the PIP family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PIP: view

Function for PIP Gene

Molecular function for PIP Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By prolactin and androgen; inhibited by estrogen.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
prolactin-induced protein

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PIP Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PIP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003779 actin binding NAS 2013294
GO:0004190 aspartic-type endopeptidase activity IBA,IMP 10713110
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 18930737
GO:0019864 IgG binding IDA 14638438
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IPI 10713110
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PIP: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PIP: view

Animal Models for PIP Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PIP:
  • Pip Pip<tm1Myal>

Animal Models for research

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PIP

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PIP

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PIP Gene

Localization for PIP Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PIP Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PIP gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
cytosol 2
plasma membrane 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PIP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA,IDA 10713110
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 22720776
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PIP: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PIP Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PIP Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for PIP Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 PEDF Induced Signaling
2 ERK Signaling
3 Akt Signaling
4 PAK Pathway
5 Miscellaneous transport and binding events
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PIP: view

Pathways by source for PIP Gene

15 Qiagen pathways for PIP Gene
  • Akt Signaling
  • all-trans-Retinoic Acid Signaling in Brain
  • Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C
  • Endothelin-1 Signaling Pathway
  • ERK Signaling

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PIP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001580 detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of bitter taste IDA 24248522
GO:0001895 retina homeostasis HEP 23580065
GO:0002682 regulation of immune system process IBA 21873635
GO:0006508 proteolysis IBA,IMP 10713110
GO:0010628 positive regulation of gene expression IDA 10072505
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PIP: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PIP Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PIP Gene

(12) Drugs for PIP Gene - From: DrugBank and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
(2S)-2-AMINO-1-(5-TERT-BUTYL-1,3,4-OXADIAZOL-2-YL)PROPAN-1-ONE Experimental Pharma Target 0
1-(5-TERT-BUTYL-1,3,4-OXADIAZOL-2-YL)-2-(METHYLAMINO)ETHANONE Experimental Pharma Target 0
2-Prolyl-5-Tert-Butyl-[1,3,4]Oxadiazole Experimental Pharma Target 0

(5) Additional Compounds for PIP Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PIP: view

Transcripts for PIP Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PIP Gene

6 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
1 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PIP

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PIP Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PIP Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for

Expression for PIP Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PIP Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PIP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Minor Salivary Gland (x47.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PIP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Salivary gland (25.3), Saliva (15.9), and Lavage (7.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PIP Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PIP

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PIP Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PIP Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in pathological conditions of the mammary gland and in several exocrine tissues, such as the lacrimal, salivary, and sweat glands.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PIP Gene

  • Saliva(4.4)
  • Skin(2.9)
  • Eye(2.8)
  • Intestine(2.5)
  • Liver(2.4)
  • Lymph node(2.2)
  • Blood(2.1)
  • Nervous system(2.1)
  • Lung(2.1)
  • Thyroid gland(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PIP: view

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PIP Gene

Orthologs for PIP Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for PIP Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PIP 29 30
  • 98.4 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PIP 29 30
  • 66.67 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PIP 30
  • 64 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pip 29 16 30
  • 60.24 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pip 29
  • 58.21 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 30
  • 36 (a)
-- 30
  • 29 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PIP was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for PIP Gene

Gene Tree for PIP (if available)
Gene Tree for PIP (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PIP: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for PIP

Paralogs for PIP Gene

No data available for Paralogs for PIP Gene

Variants for PIP Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PIP Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 07 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs112182232 Benign: not provided 143,135,248(+) C/T
NM_002652.3(PIP):c.150C>T (p.Asp50=)
rs147384445 Benign: not provided 143,139,627(+) C/A
NM_002652.3(PIP):c.426C>A (p.Ile142=)
rs147746570 Likely Benign: not provided 143,132,202(+) A/G
NM_002652.3(PIP):c.86A>G (p.Gln29Arg)
rs75076193 Benign: not provided 143,139,553(+) C/T
NM_002652.3(PIP):c.352C>T (p.Arg118Trp)

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for PIP Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PIP Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv11660n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv11661n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv11662n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv11663n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv1977e212 CNV loss 25503493
dgv432n21 CNV loss 19592680
dgv6698n100 CNV loss 25217958
esv2675537 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2764005 CNV loss 21179565
esv3542554 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3615300 CNV loss 21293372
esv3615302 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1031825 CNV loss 25217958
nsv465175 CNV loss 19166990
nsv465176 CNV loss 19166990
nsv608657 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for PIP Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 81.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.83; 34.37% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PIP Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PIP Gene

Disorders for PIP Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(97) MalaCards diseases for PIP Gene - From: COP and GCD

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
breast cyst
  • cyst of the breast
microglandular adenosis
  • adenosis - breast
sweat gland cancer
  • malignant neoplasm of sweat gland
apocrine adenocarcinoma
  • apocrine carcinoma
paget disease, extramammary
  • cutaneous paget's disease
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PIP in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PIP

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PIP: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PIP Gene

Publications for PIP Gene

  1. The prolactin-inducible protein (PIP/GCDFP-15) gene: cloning, structure and regulation. (PMID: 1955075) Myal Y … Shiu RP (Molecular and cellular endocrinology 1991) 2 3 4 22
  2. CLC- a novel susceptibility gene for allergic rhinitis? (PMID: 19650845) Bryborn M … Cardell LO (Allergy 2010) 3 22 40
  3. Crystal structure of the novel complex formed between zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG) and prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) from human seminal plasma. (PMID: 18930737) Hassan MI … Singh TP (Journal of molecular biology 2008) 3 4 22
  4. Primary structure of a new actin-binding protein from human seminal plasma. (PMID: 2013294) Schaller J … Rickli EE (European journal of biochemistry 1991) 3 4 22
  5. Diagnostic utility of mammaglobin and GCDFP-15 in the identification of metastatic breast carcinoma in fluid specimens. (PMID: 19217055) Yan Z … Chhieng DC (Diagnostic cytopathology 2009) 3 22

Products for PIP Gene

Sources for PIP Gene