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Aliases for PGK2 Gene

Aliases for PGK2 Gene

  • Phosphoglycerate Kinase 2 2 3 5
  • Phosphoglycerate Kinase, Testis Specific 3 4
  • EC 4 56
  • PGKB 3 4
  • Phosphoglycerate Kinase Autosomal Pseudogene 3
  • Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 272 3
  • Testicular Tissue Protein Li 139 3
  • DJ417L20.2 3
  • HEL-S-272 3
  • PGKPS 3

External Ids for PGK2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PGK2 Gene

  • GC06M049755
  • GC06M049800
  • GC06M049861
  • GC06M049753
  • GC06M049483

Summaries for PGK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PGK2 Gene

  • This gene is intronless, arose via retrotransposition of the phosphoglycerate kinase 1 gene, and is expressed specifically in the testis. Initially assumed to be a pseudogene, the encoded protein is actually a functional phosphoglycerate kinase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to 3-phosphoglycerate, during the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway of glycolysis, in the later stages of spermatogenesis.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GeneCards Summary for PGK2 Gene

PGK2 (Phosphoglycerate Kinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PGK2 include Male Reproductive System Disease. Among its related pathways are Glucose metabolism and Glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include phosphoglycerate kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PGK1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PGK2 Gene

  • Essential for sperm motility and male fertility (PubMed:26677959). Not required for the completion of spermatogenesis (By similarity).

Additional gene information for PGK2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PGK2 Gene

Genomics for PGK2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PGK2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PGK2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH06I049787 Promoter 0.8 EPDnew 556.4 +0.0 44 0.1 SP1 PKNOX1 RFX1 PBX2 NFYC ZBTB33 RFX5 PGK2 CRISP3
GH06I049555 Enhancer 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 9.9 +230.8 230754 2 PKNOX1 ATF1 FOXA2 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF766 ATF7 FOS SP3 SP5 CENPQ PGK2 LOC101927020 LOC101927048 MUT C6orf141 CYP2AC1P
GH06I049666 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE 10.9 +120.0 119983 0.9 HDGF HDAC1 PKNOX1 ATF1 ARNT NFRKB TCF12 ATF7 CREM KDM4B CRISP3 PGK2 C6orf141 RHAG CRISP2
GH06I049668 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 10.9 +119.2 119196 0.3 MEIS2 ESRRA CLOCK NEUROD1 CEBPG CTBP1 GATA3 BRD9 FOSL2 FOS CRISP3 PGK2 CRISP2 LOC101927020 RHAG
GH06I049669 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 10.9 +118.9 118937 0.2 MEIS2 CLOCK NEUROD1 CEBPG CTBP1 GATA3 BRD9 FOSL2 FOS RCOR1 CRISP3 PGK2 C6orf141 RHAG CRISP2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around PGK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PGK2 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for PGK2 Gene

Genomic Locations for PGK2 Gene
1,690 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PGK2 Gene

Genes around PGK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PGK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PGK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PGK2 Gene

Proteins for PGK2 Gene

  • Protein details for PGK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Phosphoglycerate kinase 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R6Y8
    • Q9H107

    Protein attributes for PGK2 Gene

    417 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    44796 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.

neXtProt entry for PGK2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PGK2 Gene


Post-translational modifications for PGK2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PGK2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for PGK2 Gene

Gene Families for PGK2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PGK2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the phosphoglycerate kinase family.
  • Belongs to the phosphoglycerate kinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PGK2: view

Function for PGK2 Gene

Molecular function for PGK2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
phosphoglycerate kinase 2,specifically expressed in spermatogenic cell,highly homologous to PGK1,glycolysis,energy pathway,key enzyme for ATP generation
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + 3-phospho-D-glycerate = ADP + 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Essential for sperm motility and male fertility (PubMed:26677959). Not required for the completion of spermatogenesis (By similarity).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PGK2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PGK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PGK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004618 phosphoglycerate kinase activity NAS 3453121
GO:0005524 ATP binding ISS --
GO:0016301 kinase activity IEA --
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PGK2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PGK2: view

Animal Models for PGK2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PGK2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PGK2

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PGK2 Gene

Localization for PGK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PGK2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PGK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 3
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PGK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus HDA,IDA 21630459
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005929 cilium IEA --
GO:0035686 sperm fibrous sheath IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA,HDA 23533145
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PGK2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PGK2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PGK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PGK2: view

Pathways by source for PGK2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P07205-PGK2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Carbohydrate degradation; glycolysis; pyruvate from D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate: step 2/5.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PGK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006096 glycolytic process NAS 3453121
GO:0016310 phosphorylation NAS 3453121
GO:0030317 flagellated sperm motility IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PGK2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PGK2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PGK2 Gene

(2) Drugs for PGK2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
3-Phosphoglyceric acid Experimental Pharma 0
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist 0

(3) Additional Compounds for PGK2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
2-Phosphoglyceric acid
  • 2-(Dihydrogen phosphate)Glycerate
  • 2-(Dihydrogen phosphate)Glyceric acid
  • 2-P-D-Glycerate
  • 2-P-D-Glyceric acid
  • 2-P-Glycerate
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
Glyceric acid 1,3-biphosphate
  • 1,3-Biphosphoglycerate
  • 1,3-Biphosphoglyceric acid
  • 1,3-Bis-phosphoglycerate
  • 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate
  • 1,3-Diphosphateglycerate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PGK2: view

Transcripts for PGK2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PGK2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(2) Additional mRNA sequences :
(31) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for PGK2 Gene

Phosphoglycerate kinase 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PGK2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PGK2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PGK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PGK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PGK2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PGK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x52.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PGK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lung (23.3), Brain (16.3), and Testis (13.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for PGK2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PGK2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PGK2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PGK2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Mainly found in round spermatids. Localized on the principle piece in the sperm (at protein level). Testis-specific. Expression significantly decreased in the testis of elderly men.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PGK2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.2)
  • Gall bladder(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PGK2: view

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PGK2 Gene

Orthologs for PGK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for PGK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PGK2 33 34
  • 99.36 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PGK2 33
  • 88.57 (n)
-- 34
  • 86 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PGK2 33
  • 88.33 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pgk2 33
  • 85.37 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pgk2 16 34 33
  • 84.89 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 84 (a)
-- 34
  • 83 (a)
-- 34
  • 83 (a)
-- 34
  • 82 (a)
-- 34
  • 81 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 81 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PGK1 34
  • 82 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 83 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pgk1 34
  • 81 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Pgk 35 34
  • 68 (a)
CG9961 35 34
  • 56 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea T03F1.3 35
  • 69 (a)
pgk-1 34
  • 69 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes PGK1 34
  • 63 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons PGK 33
  • 56.5 (n)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.6263 33
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.6705 33
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os02g0169300 33
  • 55.99 (n)
Species where no ortholog for PGK2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PGK2 Gene

Gene Tree for PGK2 (if available)
Gene Tree for PGK2 (if available)

Paralogs for PGK2 Gene

Paralogs for PGK2 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PGK2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins: Pseudogenes for PGK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PGK2: view

Variants for PGK2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PGK2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000360388 -- 49,788,907(-) A/G upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000412751 -- 49,788,647(-) C/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000695881 -- 49,787,552(-) C/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001409564 -- 49,788,694(-) G/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1002371405 -- 49,786,593(-) T/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PGK2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3608949 CNV loss 21293372

Variation tolerance for PGK2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 87.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.05; 50.43% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PGK2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PGK2 Gene

Disorders for PGK2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for PGK2 Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
male reproductive system disease
  • genital diseases, male
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PGK2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PGK2

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PGK2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PGK2 Gene

Publications for PGK2 Gene

  1. Human testis-specific PGK gene lacks introns and possesses characteristics of a processed gene. (PMID: 3453121) McCarrey JR … Thomas K (Nature 1987) 2 3 4 58
  2. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  3. The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6. (PMID: 14574404) Mungall AJ … Beck S (Nature 2003) 3 4 58
  4. Molecular cloning and structure of an autosomal processed gene for human phosphoglycerate kinase. (PMID: 3839763) Tani K … Yoshida A (Gene 1985) 2 3 58
  5. Architecture of the human interactome defines protein communities and disease networks. (PMID: 28514442) Huttlin EL … Harper JW (Nature 2017) 3 58

Products for PGK2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for PGK2

Sources for PGK2 Gene

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