This gene encodes a growth factor found in placenta which is homologous to vascular endothelial growth factor. Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011] See more...

Aliases for PGF Gene

Aliases for PGF Gene

  • Placental Growth Factor 2 3 5
  • Placenta Growth Factor 2 3 4
  • PLGF 2 3 4
  • Placental Growth Factor, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Related Protein 2 3
  • SHGC-10760 2 3
  • D12S1900 2 3
  • PlGF-2 2 3
  • PGFL 3 4
  • PIGF 2 3
  • PlGF 2 4
  • Placental Growth Factor-Like 2
  • PGF 5

External Ids for PGF Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PGF Gene

  • PGFL

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PGF Gene

  • GC14M072935
  • GC14M069225
  • GC14M073398
  • GC14M074478
  • GC14M075408
  • GC14M055576

Summaries for PGF Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PGF Gene

  • This gene encodes a growth factor found in placenta which is homologous to vascular endothelial growth factor. Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PGF Gene

PGF (Placental Growth Factor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PGF include Placental Insufficiency and Twin-To-Twin Transfusion Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency and Ras signaling pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and growth factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is VEGFA.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PGF Gene

  • Growth factor active in angiogenesis and endothelial cell growth, stimulating their proliferation and migration. It binds to the receptor FLT1/VEGFR-1. Isoform PlGF-2 binds NRP1/neuropilin-1 and NRP2/neuropilin-2 in a heparin-dependent manner. Also promotes cell tumor growth.

Gene Wiki entry for PGF Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PGF Gene

Genomics for PGF Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for PGF Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PGF on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PGF

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PGF gene promoter:
  • NF-kappaB1
  • p53
  • PPAR-gamma1
  • PPAR-gamma2
  • STAT3

Genomic Locations for PGF Gene

Latest Assembly
chr14:74,941,830-74,955,764
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
13,935 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Previous Assembly
chr14:75,408,533-75,422,467
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
13,935 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

chr14:75,408,537-75,422,487
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
13,951 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PGF Gene

Genes around PGF on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PGF Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PGF Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PGF Gene

Proteins for PGF Gene

  • Protein details for PGF Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P49763-PLGF_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Placenta growth factor
    Protein Accession:
    P49763
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q07101
    • Q9BV78
    • Q9Y6S8

    Protein attributes for PGF Gene

    Size:
    221 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    24789 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Antiparallel homodimer; disulfide-linked. Also found as heterodimer with VEGFA/VEGF. Isoform PlGF-3 is found both as homodimer and as monomer.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAB25832.2; Type=Erroneous translation; Note=Wrong choice of frame.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PGF Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PGF Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PGF Gene

Post-translational modifications for PGF Gene

Other Protein References for PGF Gene

Antibodies for research

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PGF Gene

Domains & Families for PGF Gene

Gene Families for PGF Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Candidate cardiovascular disease genes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for PGF Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PGF Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Placenta growth factor (PLGF_HUMAN)
  • Placental growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-related protein, isoform CRA_a (Q53XY6_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P49763

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PLGF_HUMAN :
  • Isoform PlGF-2 contains a basic insert which acts as a cell retention signal.
  • Belongs to the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family.
Domain:
  • Isoform PlGF-2 contains a basic insert which acts as a cell retention signal.
Family:
  • Belongs to the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PGF: view

Function for PGF Gene

Molecular function for PGF Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Growth factor active in angiogenesis and endothelial cell growth, stimulating their proliferation and migration. It binds to the receptor FLT1/VEGFR-1. Isoform PlGF-2 binds NRP1/neuropilin-1 and NRP2/neuropilin-2 in a heparin-dependent manner. Also promotes cell tumor growth.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
placenta growth factor,angiogenic,vascular endothelial growth factor related

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PGF Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PGF Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005172 vascular endothelial growth factor receptor binding IBA 21873635
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 14684734
GO:0008083 growth factor activity TAS,IMP 21215706
GO:0008201 heparin binding IEA --
GO:0042056 chemoattractant activity IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PGF: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PGF: view

Animal Models for PGF Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PGF:
  • Pgf Pgf<tm1Pec>

miRNA for PGF Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PGF

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PGF

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PGF Gene

Localization for PGF Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PGF Gene

Secreted. Note=The three isoforms are secreted but PlGF-2 appears to remain cell attached unless released by heparin.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PGF gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 3
nucleus 3
cytosol 3
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
peroxisome 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Mitochondria (2)
  • Nucleoplasm (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PGF Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA 21873635
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PGF: view

Pathways & Interactions for PGF Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for PGF Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
.85
.85
.84
.84
.74
.72
.66
.65
.64
.62
.61
.60
.57
.57
2 GPCR Pathway
.73
.73
.62
.59
.58
.58
.55
3 ERK Signaling
.61
.61
.58
.51
.49
4 Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency
.61
.61
.59
.48
5 CREB Pathway
.68
.68
.63
.50
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PGF: view

Pathways by source for PGF Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for PGF Gene
  • Development VEGF-family signaling
55 Qiagen pathways for PGF Gene
  • 14-3-3 Induced Intracellular Signaling
  • Actin-Based Motility by Rho Family GTPases
  • Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA
  • Activation of PKA through GPCR
  • Activation of PKC through GPCR

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PGF Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001525 angiogenesis IEA --
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia IBA 21873635
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IBA 21873635
GO:0001938 positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IBA 21873635
GO:0002040 sprouting angiogenesis IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PGF: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PGF Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PGF Gene

(12) Drugs for PGF Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Aflibercept Approved Pharma Target, binder Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors 0
TB-403 Pharma 0

(11) Additional Compounds for PGF Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PGF: view

Transcripts for PGF Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PGF Gene

3 REFSEQ mRNAs :
14 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
8 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PGF

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PGF Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP3:

Relevant External Links for PGF Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PGF

Expression for PGF Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PGF Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PGF Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Artery - Tibial (x4.8) and Thyroid (x4.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PGF Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Placenta (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PGF Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PGF Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PGF

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PGF Gene:

Hs.252820

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PGF Gene:

P49763-PLGF_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: While the three isoforms are present in most placental tissues, PlGF-2 is specific to early (8 week) placenta and only PlGF-1 is found in the colon and mammary carcinomas.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PGF Gene

  • Muscle(4.5)
  • Heart(3)
  • Nervous system(2.8)
  • Blood(2.7)
  • Thyroid gland(2.6)
  • Skin(2.4)
  • Liver(2.4)
  • Kidney(2.3)
  • Intestine(2.3)
  • Pancreas(2.3)
  • Eye(2.2)
  • Lymph node(2.2)
  • Bone marrow(2.1)
  • Stomach(2.1)
  • Lung(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PGF: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PGF Gene

Orthologs for PGF Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PGF Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PGF 29 30
  • 98.24 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PGF 29 30
  • 87.94 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PGF 29 30
  • 82.98 (n)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PGF 30
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pgf 29
  • 73.77 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pgf 29 16 30
  • 73.28 (n)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PGF 30
  • 52 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PGF 29 30
  • 71.58 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PGF 30
  • 48 (a)
OneToOne
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC557468 29
  • 63.91 (n)
CABZ01077555.1 30
  • 45 (a)
OneToMany
PGF (1 of 2) 30
  • 45 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for PGF was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PGF Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PGF (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PGF (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PGF: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for PGF

Paralogs for PGF Gene

Paralogs for PGF Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for PGF Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

  • PLGF_HUMAN
  • G3XA84_HUMAN
  • Q53XY6_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PGF: view

Variants for PGF Gene

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for PGF Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Variation tolerance for PGF Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 38.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.42; 9.28% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PGF Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
PGF
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PGF
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
PGF

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PGF Gene

Disorders for PGF Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(62) MalaCards diseases for PGF Gene - From: COP and GCD

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
placental insufficiency
  • uteroplacental vascular insufficiency
twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome
  • twin twin transfusion syndrome
placenta disease
  • placenta disorder
severe pre-eclampsia
  • antepartum severe pre-eclampsia
placental abruption
  • abruptio placenta
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PGF in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PGF

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Atlas
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PGF: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PGF Gene

Publications for PGF Gene

  1. Evidence of a novel isoform of placenta growth factor (PlGF-4) expressed in human trophoblast and endothelial cells. (PMID: 14568677) Yang W … Torry DS (Journal of reproductive immunology 2003) 3 4 22
  2. Two alternative mRNAs coding for the angiogenic factor, placenta growth factor (PlGF), are transcribed from a single gene of chromosome 14. (PMID: 7681160) Maglione D … Persico MG (Oncogene 1993) 2 3 4
  3. A heparin-binding form of placenta growth factor (PlGF-2) is expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and in placenta. (PMID: 8148155) Hauser S … Weich HA (Growth factors (Chur, Switzerland) 1993) 3 4 22
  4. Isolation of a human placenta cDNA coding for a protein related to the vascular permeability factor. (PMID: 1924389) Maglione D … Persico MG (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1991) 3 4 22
  5. HRG inhibits tumor growth and metastasis by inducing macrophage polarization and vessel normalization through downregulation of PlGF. (PMID: 21215706) Rolny C … Carmeliet P (Cancer cell 2011) 3 4

Products for PGF Gene

Sources for PGF Gene