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Aliases for PDE4A Gene

Aliases for PDE4A Gene

  • Phosphodiesterase 4A 2 3 5
  • DPDE2 3 4
  • PDE46 3 4
  • Phosphodiesterase 4A, CAMP-Specific (Dunce (Drosophila)-Homolog Phosphodiesterase E2) 2
  • Phosphodiesterase E2 Dunce Homolog (Drosophila) 2
  • Phosphodiesterase E2 Dunce Homolog, Drosophila 3
  • CAMP-Specific 3,5-Cyclic Phosphodiesterase 4A 3
  • Phosphodiesterase 4A, CAMP-Specific (Dunce 3
  • Phosphodiesterase 4A, CAMP-Specific 2
  • Phosphodiesterase Isozyme 4 3
  • EC 4
  • PDE4 3

External Ids for PDE4A Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PDE4A Gene

  • DPDE2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PDE4A Gene

  • GC19P010663
  • GC19P010376
  • GC19P010527
  • GC19P010111

Summaries for PDE4A Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PDE4A Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) family, and PDE4 subfamily. This PDE hydrolyzes the second messenger, cAMP, which is a regulator and mediator of a number of cellular responses to extracellular signals. Thus, by regulating the cellular concentration of cAMP, this protein plays a key role in many important physiological processes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PDE4A Gene

PDE4A (Phosphodiesterase 4A) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PDE4A include Platelet Adenylate Cyclase Activity and Pulmonary Eosinophilia. Among its related pathways are Pyrimidine metabolism (KEGG) and G-protein signaling G-Protein alpha-i signaling cascades. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include 3,5-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity and 3,5-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PDE4D.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PDE4A Gene

  • Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.

Tocris Summary for PDE4A Gene

  • Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a family of phosphohydrolyases that catalyze the hydrolysis of 3' cyclic phosphate bonds in adenosine and/or guanine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate (cAMP and/or cGMP). PDEs regulate the second messengers by controlling their degradation.

Gene Wiki entry for PDE4A Gene

Additional gene information for PDE4A Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PDE4A Gene

Genomics for PDE4A Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PDE4A Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PDE4A Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH19J010427 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 665.7 +13.8 13792 6.5 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 SMAD1 ARNT SIN3A YBX1 ZNF143 ZNF592 MEF2D PDE4A ZNF266 ILF3 KRI1 FBXL12 RAVER1 ZNF561 PPAN EIF3G LOC100419831
GH19J010400 Promoter/Enhancer 2.4 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 660.8 -12.6 -12556 6.5 HDGF ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 POLR2B E2F8 ZNF207 PDE4A MIR1181 CDC37 ICAM1 MRPL4 ICAM5 ICAM4 RAVER1 TYK2 C19orf38
GH19J010419 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 +3.4 3427 2 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK ARNT SIN3A YBX1 ZNF2 YY1 POLR2B CBX5 CDC37 PDE4A ILF3 DNMT1 KRI1 ZNF266 PPAN LOC100419831 FBXL12 RAVER1
GH19J010415 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 658.5 -0.1 -127 2 CLOCK MLX DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC PDE4A LOC100419831 ZNF266 ILF3 KRI1 FBXL12 RAVER1 ZNF561 PPAN DNMT1
GH19J010418 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE 650.7 +1.7 1654 0.9 HDGF HDAC1 ZSCAN4 INSM2 KLF17 MZF1 ZBTB40 EGR1 ZNF366 KLF7 CDC37 PDE4A ZNF266 RAVER1 KRI1 FBXL12 ZNF561 ILF3 EIF3G LOC100419831
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PDE4A on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PDE4A gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • PPAR-gamma2
  • PPAR-gamma1
  • C/EBPalpha
  • CREB

Genomic Locations for PDE4A Gene

Genomic Locations for PDE4A Gene
52,859 bases
Plus strand
52,859 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PDE4A Gene

Genes around PDE4A on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PDE4A Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PDE4A Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PDE4A Gene

Proteins for PDE4A Gene

  • Protein details for PDE4A Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    cAMP-specific 3,5-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4A
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O75522
    • O76092
    • Q16255
    • Q16691
    • Q5DM53
    • Q6PMT2
    • Q8IVA7
    • Q8WUQ3
    • Q9H3H2

    Protein attributes for PDE4A Gene

    886 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    98143 Da
    Name=a divalent metal cation; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:60240;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Isoform 1 interacts with LYN. Isoform 2 and isoform 6 interact weakly with LYN. Isoform 1, isoform 2 and isoform 6 interact with ARRB2.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PDE4A Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PDE4A Gene

neXtProt entry for PDE4A Gene

Post-translational modifications for PDE4A Gene

  • Phosphorylation by MAPKAPK2 its activation through PKA phosphorylation (By similarity). Phosphorylated at Ser-686 and Ser-688 when expressed in S.frugiperda cells. Isoform 2 and isoform 7 are activated by phosphorylation at Ser-119 and Ser-123 respectively by PKA.
  • Proteolytically cleaved by caspase-3.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PDE4A Gene

Domains & Families for PDE4A Gene

Gene Families for PDE4A Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for PDE4A Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. PDE4 subfamily.
  • Belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. PDE4 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PDE4A: view

Function for PDE4A Gene

Molecular function for PDE4A Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Adenosine 3,5-cyclic phosphate + H(2)O = adenosine 5-phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Isoform 1, isoform 2, isoform 6 and isoform 7 are inhibited by rolipram and cilomilast. Isoform 1, isoform 2 and isoform 6 are inhibited by 4-[(3-butoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-methyl]-2-imidazolidinone (Ro 20-1724), roflumilast and denbufylline.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=4.0 uM for cAMP (isoform 2) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11306681, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15738310}; KM=3 uM for cAMP (isoform 6) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11306681, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15738310};
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
cAMP specific nucleotide phosphodiesterase class IV,A,with homology to Drosophila dunce gene,involved in signal transduction

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PDE4A Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PDE4A Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PDE4A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004115 3,5-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase activity TAS,IGI --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 11306681
GO:0008081 phosphoric diester hydrolase activity IEA --
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
GO:0030552 cAMP binding IGI 8413254
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PDE4A: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PDE4A: view

Animal Models for PDE4A Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PDE4A:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PDE4A

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PDE4A Gene

Localization for PDE4A Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PDE4A Gene

Isoform 1: Cytoplasm, perinuclear region.
Isoform 2: Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Cell projection, ruffle membrane.
Isoform 4: Membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Note=Isoform 4 has propensity for association with membranes.
Isoform 6: Cytoplasm, perinuclear region.
Isoform 7: Cytoplasm. Membrane. Note=Predominantly cytoplasmic.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PDE4A gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Plasma membrane (3)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PDE4A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA,IDA --
GO:0016020 membrane TAS 9677330
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PDE4A: view

Pathways & Interactions for PDE4A Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PDE4A: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P27815-PDE4A_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Purine metabolism; 3,5-cyclic AMP degradation; AMP from 3,5-cyclic AMP: step 1/1.

Interacting Proteins for PDE4A Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PDE4A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006198 cAMP catabolic process IGI,IMP 17704206
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 8940140
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007608 sensory perception of smell IEA --
GO:0010738 regulation of protein kinase A signaling IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PDE4A: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PDE4A Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PDE4A Gene

(121) Drugs for PDE4A Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, FDA Approved Drugs, IUPHAR, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Dipyridamole Approved Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor, inhibitor, Target Adenosine transport inhibitor 84
Dyphylline Approved Pharma inhibitor, Target 0
Roflumilast Approved Pharma inhibitor, Target PDE-4 inhibitor 0
Ibudilast Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Target 11
Pentoxifylline Approved, Investigational Pharma antibody, Target, inhibitor 104

(53) Additional Compounds for PDE4A Gene - From: Novoseek, IUPHAR, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Antagonist 28822-58-4
Inhibition, Inhibitor
Etazolate hydrochloride

(5) Tocris Compounds for PDE4A Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Eggmanone Potent and selective PDE4 inhibitor; suppresses hedgehog signaling 505068-32-6
Etazolate hydrochloride PDE4 inhibitor 35838-58-5
IBMX PDE inhibitor (non-selective) 28822-58-4
MY-5445 PDE5 inhibitor 78351-75-4
Ro 20-1724 PDE4 inhibitor 29925-17-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PDE4A: view

Transcripts for PDE4A Gene

Unigene Clusters for PDE4A Gene

Phosphodiesterase 4A, cAMP-specific:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PDE4A

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PDE4A Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b · 17c ^ 18a · 18b ^ 19a ·
SP1: - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: -
SP7: - - - - -
SP8: - - - - -
SP9: -
SP10: -

ExUns: 19b · 19c · 19d

Relevant External Links for PDE4A Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PDE4A Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PDE4A Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PDE4A Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreatic juice (54.0) and Frontal cortex (15.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PDE4A Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PDE4A Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PDE4A Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PDE4A Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PDE4A Gene:

Tissue specificity: Isoform 1 is widely expressed. Isoform 2 is abundant in liver, stomach, testis, thyroid and adrenal glands. It is also found in placenta, kidney, pancreas, ovary, uterus, skin, monocytes, mast cells, macrophages, as well as in bronchial smooth muscle. Isoform 6 is expressed at high levels in the heart and small intestine. It is also found in the brain, kidney, spleen, colon, salivary gland, ovary and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Isoform 7 is expressed predominantly in skeletal muscle and brain and at lower levels in the testis. Isoform 7 is expressed in the brain. Found in specific neuronal subpopulations in cortex, spinal cord and cerebellum (at protein level).

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PDE4A Gene

  • Nervous system(4.6)
  • Blood(4.5)
  • Muscle(3.1)
  • Lung(2.7)
  • Heart(2.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PDE4A: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PDE4A Gene

Orthologs for PDE4A Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PDE4A Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PDE4A 34 33
  • 87.05 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PDE4A 34
  • 87 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pde4a 33
  • 82.92 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pde4a 16 34 33
  • 82.05 (n)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PDE4A 34
  • 82 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PDE4A 34
  • 72 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PDE4A 34
  • 75 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100488846 33
  • 75.72 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pde4a 34 33
  • 75.56 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta dnc 35
  • 60 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea R153.1a 35
  • 54 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PDE4A was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PDE4A Gene

Gene Tree for PDE4A (if available)
Gene Tree for PDE4A (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PDE4A: view image

Paralogs for PDE4A Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for PDE4A Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

  • Q9HC30_HUMAN
  • Q9HC31_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PDE4A: view

Variants for PDE4A Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PDE4A Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs150660796 likely-benign, not provided 10,457,992(+) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1000055077 -- 10,469,861(+) C/G downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000065001 -- 10,424,864(+) T/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000087521 -- 10,417,407(+) G/C genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000087948 -- 10,448,622(+) T/C genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PDE4A Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1127650 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv518008 CNV gain 19592680
nsv521918 CNV gain 19592680
nsv833744 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for PDE4A Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 10% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 6.03; 75.06% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PDE4A Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PDE4A Gene

Disorders for PDE4A Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(14) MalaCards diseases for PDE4A Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
platelet adenylate cyclase activity
pulmonary eosinophilia
  • asthmatic pulmonary eosinophilia
  • asthma, susceptibility to
respiratory failure
  • acute and chronic respiratory failure
pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive
  • copd
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PDE4A in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PDE4A

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PDE4A: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PDE4A Gene

Publications for PDE4A Gene

  1. Human PDE4A8, a novel brain-expressed PDE4 cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase that has undergone rapid evolutionary change. (PMID: 18095939) Mackenzie KF … Bolger GB (The Biochemical journal 2008) 3 4 22 58
  2. Selective SUMO modification of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase-4D5 (PDE4D5) regulates the functional consequences of phosphorylation by PKA and ERK. (PMID: 20196770) Li X … Baillie GS (The Biochemical journal 2010) 3 4 58
  3. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 44 58
  4. Cross talk between phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and cyclic AMP (cAMP)-protein kinase a signaling pathways at the level of a protein kinase B/beta-arrestin/cAMP phosphodiesterase 4 complex. (PMID: 20086095) Bjørgo E … Taskén K (Molecular and cellular biology 2010) 3 22 58
  5. Cytokine-dependent balance of mitogenic effects in primary human lung fibroblasts related to cyclic AMP signaling and phosphodiesterase 4 inhibition. (PMID: 20082309) Selige J … Dunkern T (Journal of cellular physiology 2010) 3 22 58

Products for PDE4A Gene

Sources for PDE4A Gene

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