This gene encodes a phosphoprotein, which is located in the outer and inner segments of the rod cells in the retina. This protein may participate in the regulation of visual phototransduction or in the integration of photoreceptor metabolism. It modulates the phototransduction cascade by interacting with the beta and gamma subunits of the retinal G-protein transducin. This gene... See more...

Aliases for PDC Gene

Aliases for PDC Gene

  • Phosducin 2 3 4 5
  • 33 KDa Phototransducing Protein 3 4
  • PHD 3 4
  • Phosducin-Like Orphan Protein 3
  • G Beta Gamma Binding Protein 3
  • Protein MEKA 4
  • PhLOP 3
  • MEKA 3
  • PhLP 3

External Ids for PDC Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PDC Gene

  • GC01M183938
  • GC01M181840
  • GC01M182932
  • GC01M183651
  • GC01M183144
  • GC01M184679
  • GC01M157647

Summaries for PDC Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PDC Gene

  • This gene encodes a phosphoprotein, which is located in the outer and inner segments of the rod cells in the retina. This protein may participate in the regulation of visual phototransduction or in the integration of photoreceptor metabolism. It modulates the phototransduction cascade by interacting with the beta and gamma subunits of the retinal G-protein transducin. This gene is a potential candidate gene for retinitis pigmentosa and Usher syndrome type II. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PDC Gene

PDC (Phosducin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PDC include Tomato Allergy and Timothy Grass Allergy. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include phospholipase inhibitor activity. An important paralog of this gene is PDCL.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PDC Gene

  • May participate in the regulation of visual phototransduction or in the integration of photoreceptor metabolism. Inhibits the transcriptional activation activity of the cone-rod homeobox CRX.

Gene Wiki entry for PDC Gene

Additional gene information for PDC Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PDC Gene

Genomics for PDC Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PDC Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PDC Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J186502 Promoter/Enhancer 0.8 EPDnew Ensembl 500.3 -42.0 -42028 2.1 TCF12 FOXA2 FOSL2 SPI1 FOXA1 SP1 PDC ENSG00000273198 HSALNG0009089 PDC-AS1
GH01J186461 Promoter 0.3 EPDnew 500.7 0.0 -20 0.1 PDC PDC-AS1 HSALNG0009089
GH01J186428 Enhancer 0.4 Ensembl 12.4 +32.1 32113 2 SPI1 CEBPB PRDM1 PDC PDC-AS1 piR-34822-021
GH01J186081 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 1.3 +378.4 378440 2.1 ZNF217 ZSCAN5C GTF2E2 ZNF639 ZBTB5 ZIC2 AFF1 TRIM28 REST HES1 HMCN1 PDC piR-40678-001 piR-32559-026
GH01J186475 Enhancer 0.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 0.4 -15.5 -15487 2.4 FOS ATF2 NFE2 ZBTB40 JUN NFE2L2 ATF3 ATF7 PTGS2 ENSG00000273198 ENSG00000228238 PLA2G4A PDC HSALNG0009089 PDC-AS1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PDC on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PDC

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PDC gene promoter:
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB
  • HNF-4alpha2
  • p53

Genomic Locations for PDC Gene

Genomic Locations for PDC Gene
chr1:186,443,566-186,461,114
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
17,549 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr1:186,412,698-186,430,254
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
17,557 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PDC Gene

Genes around PDC on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PDC Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PDC Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PDC Gene

Proteins for PDC Gene

  • Protein details for PDC Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P20941-PHOS_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Phosducin
    Protein Accession:
    P20941
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q14816
    • Q9UP22
    • Q9UP23

    Protein attributes for PDC Gene

    Size:
    246 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    28246 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Forms a complex with the beta and gamma subunits of the GTP-binding protein, transducin. Interacts with CRX.

    Alternative splice isoforms for PDC Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PDC Gene

Post-translational modifications for PDC Gene

  • Light-induced changes in cyclic nucleotide levels modulate the phosphorylation of this protein by cAMP kinase.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PDC Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PDC Gene

Domains & Families for PDC Gene

Gene Families for PDC Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for PDC Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PDC Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Protein MEKA (PHOS_HUMAN)
  • PDC protein (Q52LP8_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P20941

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PHOS_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the phosducin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the phosducin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PDC: view

Function for PDC Gene

Molecular function for PDC Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May participate in the regulation of visual phototransduction or in the integration of photoreceptor metabolism. Inhibits the transcriptional activation activity of the cone-rod homeobox CRX.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
phosducin,expressed in rod and cone photoreceptors and pinealocytes

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PDC Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004859 phospholipase inhibitor activity TAS 7961975
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PDC: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PDC: view

Animal Models for PDC Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PDC:
  • Pdc Pdc<tm1Luhe>
  • Pdc Pdc<tm1Vya>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for PDC Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PDC

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PDC

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PDC Gene

Localization for PDC Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PDC Gene

Cytoplasm, cytosol. Nucleus. Cell projection, cilium, photoreceptor outer segment. Photoreceptor inner segment.
[Isoform 2]: Nucleus.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PDC gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 4
cytosol 4
plasma membrane 2
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PDC Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001750 photoreceptor outer segment IEA --
GO:0001917 photoreceptor inner segment IEA --
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PDC: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PDC Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PDC Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for PDC Gene

No Data Available

SIGNOR curated interactions for PDC Gene

Other effect:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PDC Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007186 G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS 7961975
GO:0007601 visual perception IEA --
GO:0007602 phototransduction TAS 8288249
GO:0043086 negative regulation of catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0050896 response to stimulus IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PDC: view

No data available for Pathways by source for PDC Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PDC Gene

(9) Drugs for PDC Gene - From: DrugBank, ClinicalTrials, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Citric acid Approved, Vet_approved Nutra Agonist, Activator, Target 1480
cyclic amp Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
pyruvate Pharma 81

(6) Additional Compounds for PDC Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PDC: view

Transcripts for PDC Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PDC Gene

3 REFSEQ mRNAs :
8 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PDC

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PDC Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PDC Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PDC

Expression for PDC Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PDC Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PDC Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellum (x4.5) and Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x4.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PDC Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Retina (44.9) and Liver (24.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PDC Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PDC Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PDC

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PDC Gene:

Hs.654381

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PDC Gene

  • Eye(4.6)
  • Nervous system(4.4)
  • Blood(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PDC: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PDC Gene

Orthologs for PDC Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PDC Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PDC 31 30
  • 99.46 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PDC 31 30
  • 91.77 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PDC 31 30
  • 90.4 (n)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pdc 30
  • 86.59 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pdc 17 31 30
  • 86.34 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PDC 31
  • 81 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PDC 31
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PDC 31 30
  • 76.15 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PDC 31
  • 70 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pdc 30
  • 69.97 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pdca 31 30
  • 66.82 (n)
OneToMany
pdcb 31
  • 60 (a)
OneToMany
Dr.26950 30
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG7650 31
  • 28 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mau-8 31
  • 20 (a)
OneToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes PLP2 31
  • 14 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 31
  • 32 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for PDC was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PDC Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PDC (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PDC (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PDC: view image

Paralogs for PDC Gene

Paralogs for PDC Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PDC Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

  • PHOS_HUMAN
  • Q52LP8_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PDC: view

Variants for PDC Gene

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for PDC Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PDC Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2762201 CNV gain 21179565
esv3575361 CNV gain 25503493
esv3890826 CNV gain 25118596
nsv1012164 CNV gain 25217958
nsv946542 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for PDC Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 62.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.60; 30.80% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PDC Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PDC

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PDC Gene

Disorders for PDC Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(12) MalaCards diseases for PDC Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
tomato allergy
  • solanum lycopersicum fruit allergy
timothy grass allergy
melon allergy
  • cucumis melo fruit allergy
fruit allergy
  • allergy to fruit
retinitis pigmentosa
  • retinitis pigmentosa 1
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PDC in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PDC

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PDC: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PDC Gene

Publications for PDC Gene

  1. Mutation screening of the phosducin gene PDC in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and allied diseases. (PMID: 14758335) Nishiguchi KM … Dryja TP (Molecular vision 2004) 3 23 41 54
  2. Assignment of the phosducin (PDC) gene to human chromosome 1q25-1q32.1 by somatic cell hybridization and in situ hybridization. (PMID: 8288249) Sparkes RS … Bateman JB (Genomics 1993) 2 3 23 54
  3. Phosducin influences sympathetic activity and prevents stress-induced hypertension in humans and mice. (PMID: 19959875) Beetz N … Hein L (The Journal of clinical investigation 2009) 3 23 54
  4. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. (PMID: 16710414) Gregory SG … Prigmore E (Nature 2006) 3 4 54
  5. SUMO-1 controls the protein stability and the biological function of phosducin. (PMID: 16421094) Klenk C … Lohse MJ (The Journal of biological chemistry 2006) 3 23 54

Products for PDC Gene

Sources for PDC Gene