Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for PDC Gene

Aliases for PDC Gene

  • Phosducin 2 3 3 5
  • 33 KDa Phototransducing Protein 3 4
  • PHD 3 4
  • Phosducin-Like Orphan Protein 3
  • G Beta Gamma Binding Protein 3
  • Protein MEKA 4
  • PhLOP 3
  • MEKA 3
  • PhLP 3

External Ids for PDC Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PDC Gene

  • GC01M183938
  • GC01M181840
  • GC01M182932
  • GC01M183651
  • GC01M183144
  • GC01M184679
  • GC01M157647

Summaries for PDC Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PDC Gene

  • This gene encodes a phosphoprotein, which is located in the outer and inner segments of the rod cells in the retina. This protein may participate in the regulation of visual phototransduction or in the integration of photoreceptor metabolism. It modulates the phototransduction cascade by interacting with the beta and gamma subunits of the retinal G-protein transducin. This gene is a potential candidate gene for retinitis pigmentosa and Usher syndrome type II. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PDC Gene

PDC (Phosducin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PDC include Tomato Allergy and Timothy Grass Allergy. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include phospholipase inhibitor activity. An important paralog of this gene is PDCL.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PDC Gene

  • May participate in the regulation of visual phototransduction or in the integration of photoreceptor metabolism. Inhibits the transcriptional activation activity of the cone-rod homeobox CRX.

Gene Wiki entry for PDC Gene

Additional gene information for PDC Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PDC Gene

Genomics for PDC Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PDC Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PDC Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01I186461 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 550.8 0.0 -12 0.1 GC01P186459 PDC LOC102724919 ENSG00000273198
GH01I186081 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 1.3 +378.4 378355 2 PKNOX1 FOXA2 SMAD1 ARNT FEZF1 IRF4 ZNF766 CBX5 E2F8 SP3 OCLM TPR ODR4 HMCN1 PDC ENSG00000224691 GC01M185927
GH01I186441 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 0.4 +18.6 18587 2.1 MEIS2 MXI1 JUN CEBPB EP300 SP1 MAFF GATA3 JUND POLR2A ENSG00000273198 GC01M186369 LOC102724919 PDC
GH01I186475 Enhancer 0.8 FANTOM5 ENCODE 0.4 -15.5 -15495 1.9 JUN NFE2 ATF7 FOS ZBTB40 ATF2 PTGS2 ENSG00000273198 ENSG00000228238 PLA2G4A PDC
GH01I186473 Enhancer 0.4 ENCODE 0.4 -13.4 -13368 1.7 JUND CEBPB ODR4 ENSG00000273198 PDC
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around PDC on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PDC gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for PDC Gene

Genomic Locations for PDC Gene
17,557 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PDC Gene

Genes around PDC on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PDC Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PDC Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PDC Gene

Proteins for PDC Gene

  • Protein details for PDC Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q14816
    • Q9UP22
    • Q9UP23

    Protein attributes for PDC Gene

    246 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    28246 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Forms a complex with the beta and gamma subunits of the GTP-binding protein, transducin. Interacts with CRX.

    Alternative splice isoforms for PDC Gene


neXtProt entry for PDC Gene

Post-translational modifications for PDC Gene

  • Light-induced changes in cyclic nucleotide levels modulate the phosphorylation of this protein by cAMP kinase.

Other Protein References for PDC Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PDC Gene

Domains & Families for PDC Gene

Gene Families for PDC Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PDC Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the phosducin family.
  • Belongs to the phosducin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PDC: view

Function for PDC Gene

Molecular function for PDC Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
phosducin,expressed in rod and cone photoreceptors and pinealocytes
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May participate in the regulation of visual phototransduction or in the integration of photoreceptor metabolism. Inhibits the transcriptional activation activity of the cone-rod homeobox CRX.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PDC Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004859 phospholipase inhibitor activity TAS 7961975
GO:0008479 contributes_to queuine tRNA-ribosyltransferase activity IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PDC: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PDC: view

Animal Models for PDC Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PDC:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for PDC Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PDC

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PDC Gene

Localization for PDC Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PDC Gene

Cytoplasm, cytosol. Nucleus. Cell projection, cilium, photoreceptor outer segment. Photoreceptor inner segment.
Isoform 2: Nucleus.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PDC gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 4
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PDC Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001750 photoreceptor outer segment IEA --
GO:0001917 photoreceptor inner segment IEA --
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PDC: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PDC Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PDC Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for PDC Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PDC Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS 7961975
GO:0007601 visual perception IEA --
GO:0007602 phototransduction TAS 8288249
GO:0008616 queuosine biosynthetic process IBA --
GO:0043086 negative regulation of catalytic activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PDC: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for PDC Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PDC Gene

(8) Drugs for PDC Gene - From: ClinicalTrials, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
cyclic amp Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
pyruvate Nutra 47

(6) Additional Compounds for PDC Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PDC: view

Transcripts for PDC Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PDC Gene

(4) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(4) Additional mRNA sequences :
(9) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for PDC Gene

Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PDC Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PDC Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PDC Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PDC Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PDC Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellum (x4.5) and Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x4.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PDC Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Retina (44.9) and Liver (24.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PDC Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PDC Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PDC Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PDC Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PDC Gene

  • Eye(4.6)
  • Nervous system(4.4)
  • Blood(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PDC: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PDC Gene

Orthologs for PDC Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PDC Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PDC 33 34
  • 99.46 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PDC 33 34
  • 91.77 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PDC 33 34
  • 90.4 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pdc 33
  • 86.59 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pdc 33 16 34
  • 86.34 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PDC 34
  • 81 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PDC 34
  • 73 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PDC 33 34
  • 76.15 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PDC 34
  • 70 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pdc 33
  • 69.97 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pdca 33 34
  • 66.82 (n)
pdcb 34
  • 60 (a)
Dr.26950 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG7650 34
  • 28 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mau-8 34
  • 20 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes PLP2 34
  • 14 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 32 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PDC was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PDC Gene

Gene Tree for PDC (if available)
Gene Tree for PDC (if available)

Paralogs for PDC Gene

Paralogs for PDC Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PDC Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PDC: view

Variants for PDC Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PDC Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000106181 -- 186,452,461(-) C/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000272649 -- 186,461,730(-) T/G upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000727469 -- 186,462,116(-) G/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000886579 -- 186,449,256(-) C/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001057236 -- 186,456,694(-) C/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PDC Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv946542 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv1012164 CNV gain 25217958
esv3890826 CNV gain 25118596
esv3575361 CNV gain 25503493
esv2762201 CNV gain 21179565

Variation tolerance for PDC Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 62.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.60; 30.80% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PDC Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PDC Gene

Disorders for PDC Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(7) MalaCards diseases for PDC Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
tomato allergy
  • solanum lycopersicum fruit allergy
timothy grass allergy
retinitis pigmentosa
  • rp
peach allergy
  • prunus persica fruit allergy
nasal cavity disease
  • disorder of nasal cavity
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PDC in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PDC

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PDC: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PDC Gene

Publications for PDC Gene

  1. Mutation screening of the phosducin gene PDC in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and allied diseases. (PMID: 14758335) Nishiguchi KM … Dryja TP (Molecular vision 2004) 3 22 44 58
  2. Assignment of the phosducin (PDC) gene to human chromosome 1q25-1q32.1 by somatic cell hybridization and in situ hybridization. (PMID: 8288249) Sparkes RS … Bateman JB (Genomics 1993) 2 3 22 58
  3. Phosducin influences sympathetic activity and prevents stress-induced hypertension in humans and mice. (PMID: 19959875) Beetz N … Hein L (The Journal of clinical investigation 2009) 3 22 58
  4. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. (PMID: 16710414) Gregory SG … Prigmore E (Nature 2006) 3 4 58
  5. SUMO-1 controls the protein stability and the biological function of phosducin. (PMID: 16421094) Klenk C … Lohse MJ (The Journal of biological chemistry 2006) 3 22 58

Products for PDC Gene

Sources for PDC Gene

Loading form....