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Aliases for PCK1 Gene

Aliases for PCK1 Gene

  • Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase 1 2 3 5
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase 1 (Soluble) 2 3
  • PEPCK-C 3 4
  • PEPCK1 3 4
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase, Cytosolic [GTP] 3
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase, Cytosolic 3
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase 3
  • Phosphopyruvate Carboxylase 3
  • PEP Carboxykinase 3
  • EC 4
  • PEPCKC 3
  • PCKDC 3

External Ids for PCK1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PCK1 Gene

  • GC20P055864
  • GC20P056774
  • GC20P056821
  • GC20P055569
  • GC20P056136
  • GC20P052917

Summaries for PCK1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PCK1 Gene

  • This gene is a main control point for the regulation of gluconeogenesis. The cytosolic enzyme encoded by this gene, along with GTP, catalyzes the formation of phosphoenolpyruvate from oxaloacetate, with the release of carbon dioxide and GDP. The expression of this gene can be regulated by insulin, glucocorticoids, glucagon, cAMP, and diet. Defects in this gene are a cause of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency. A mitochondrial isozyme of the encoded protein also has been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PCK1 Gene

PCK1 (Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PCK1 include Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Deficiency, Cytosolic and Pepck 1 Deficiency. Among its related pathways are Adipogenesis and AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and GDP binding. An important paralog of this gene is PCK2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PCK1 Gene

  • Catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the rate-limiting step in the metabolic pathway that produces glucose from lactate and other precursors derived from the citric acid cycle.

Gene Wiki entry for PCK1 Gene

Additional gene information for PCK1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PCK1 Gene

Genomics for PCK1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PCK1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PCK1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH20J057482 Promoter/Enhancer 1.8 EPDnew FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 650.2 -77.7 -77681 1 PKNOX1 SMAD1 BMI1 YBX1 KLF5 ZNF207 ZNF143 ATF7 ETV6 BCLAF1 PCK1 LOC100291105 RBM38 HMGB1P1 LOC105372688
GH20J057558 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 EPDnew ENCODE dbSUPER 655.6 -0.8 -768 4 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT MLX ARID4B DMAP1 YY1 ZNF766 E2F8 PCK1 RAE1 CTCFL
GH20J057536 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE dbSUPER 17.9 -23.7 -23717 2.4 SIX4 ARNT TAL1 RAD21 YY1 CHAMP1 ZNF280A TCF12 CBX5 NCOR1 PCK1 RBM38 LOC100291105 ANKRD60 CTCFL
GH20J057495 Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.3 -65.8 -65800 0.6 PKNOX1 ARNT SIN3A IRF4 ZNF121 ARID2 ZNF143 ATF7 RUNX3 NCOA1 LOC100291105 RBM38 MTND1P9 MTRNR2L3 RAE1 CTCFL PCK1 HMGB1P1
GH20J057531 Enhancer 1 ENCODE dbSUPER 12.1 -28.7 -28729 1.1 FOXA2 MZF1 RAD21 RARA YY1 EGR1 CREM MIXL1 RXRA GATAD2B PCK1 ANKRD60 CTCFL
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PCK1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PCK1 gene promoter:
  • Hand1
  • E47
  • deltaCREB
  • CREB
  • NF-kappaB
  • NF-kappaB1
  • RelA
  • Pax-4a
  • IRF-1
  • Olf-1

Genomic Locations for PCK1 Gene

Genomic Locations for PCK1 Gene
7,033 bases
Plus strand
5,378 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PCK1 Gene

Genes around PCK1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PCK1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PCK1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PCK1 Gene

Proteins for PCK1 Gene

  • Protein details for PCK1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, cytosolic [GTP]
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K437
    • B4DT64
    • Q8TCA3
    • Q9UJD2

    Protein attributes for PCK1 Gene

    622 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    69195 Da
    Name=Mn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29035;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.
    • In eukaryotes there are two isozymes: a cytoplasmic one and a mitochondrial one.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PCK1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PCK1 Gene


neXtProt entry for PCK1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PCK1 Gene

  • Lysine acetylation by p300/EP300 is increased on high glucose conditions and promotes ubiquitination by UBR5, acetylation is enhanced in the presence of BAG6. Deacetylated by SIRT2.
  • Ubiquitination by UBR5 leads to proteasomal degradation.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PCK1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PCK1 Gene

Domains & Families for PCK1 Gene

Gene Families for PCK1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [GTP] family.
  • Belongs to the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [GTP] family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PCK1: view

Function for PCK1 Gene

Molecular function for PCK1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the rate-limiting step in the metabolic pathway that produces glucose from lactate and other precursors derived from the citric acid cycle.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
GTP + oxaloacetate = GDP + phosphoenolpyruvate + CO(2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Enzyme activity is enhanced by acetylation.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Regulated by cAMP and insulin.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1,cytoplasmic,gluconeogenesis,energy pathway,mainly expressed in liver,kidney,adipocytes

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PCK1 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PCK1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PCK1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding IDA 11851336
GO:0004611 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity IEA --
GO:0004613 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) activity TAS --
GO:0005525 GTP binding IDA 11851336
GO:0016829 lyase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PCK1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PCK1: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for PCK1 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for PCK1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PCK1:

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PCK1 Gene

Localization for PCK1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PCK1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PCK1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 5
nucleus 3
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PCK1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm ISS --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IBA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA,TAS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PCK1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PCK1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PCK1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PCK1: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P35558-PCKGC_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Carbohydrate biosynthesis; gluconeogenesis.

SIGNOR curated interactions for PCK1 Gene

Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PCK1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process IMP,IEA 14764811
GO:0006090 pyruvate metabolic process IBA --
GO:0006094 gluconeogenesis TAS,ISS --
GO:0006107 oxaloacetate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006475 internal protein amino acid acetylation IDA 20167786
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PCK1: view

Drugs & Compounds for PCK1 Gene

(14) Drugs for PCK1 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Mersalyl Approved Pharma Enzyme, inhibitor 0
Carbon dioxide Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma 0
phosphoenolpyruvate Experimental Pharma Target 0
1-(2-Fluorobenzyl)-3-Butyl-8-(N-Acetyl-4-Aminobenzyl)-Xanthine Experimental Pharma Target 0
1-Allyl-3-Butyl-8-(N-Acetyl-4-Aminobenzyl)-Xanthine Experimental Pharma Target 0

(10) Additional Compounds for PCK1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 5'-IDP
  • Inosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate)
  • Inosine 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate)
  • Inosine 5'-diphosphate
  • Inosine 5'-pyrophosphate
inosine triphosphate
  • 2'-Inosine-5'-triphosphate
  • Inosine 5'-triphosphate
  • Inosine tripolyphosphate
  • O(5')-(Tetrahydroxytriphosphoryl)inosine
  • 2'-Inosine-5'-triphosphoric acid
Oxalacetic acid
  • 2-Oxobutanedioic acid
  • 2-Oxosuccinic acid
  • 3-Carboxy-3-oxopropanoic acid
  • keto-Succinic acid
  • Ketosuccinic acid
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PCK1: view

Transcripts for PCK1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PCK1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PCK1 Gene

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (soluble):
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PCK1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b · 10c
SP1: - - -

Relevant External Links for PCK1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PCK1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PCK1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PCK1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x29.5) and Kidney - Cortex (x12.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PCK1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Kidney (27.4), Gallbladder (24.9), and Liver (8.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PCK1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PCK1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PCK1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PCK1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PCK1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Major sites of expression are liver, kidney and adipocytes.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PCK1 Gene

  • Kidney(4.8)
  • Liver(4.8)
  • Intestine(2.2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PCK1 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cranial nerve
  • ear
  • eye
  • head
  • heart
  • lung
  • adrenal gland
  • kidney
  • liver
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • sweat gland
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PCK1: view

Orthologs for PCK1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PCK1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PCK1 34 33
  • 99.04 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PEPCK 34
  • 90 (a)
PCK1 33
  • 87.3 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PCK1 34
  • 87 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pck1 16 34 33
  • 85.53 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pck1 33
  • 85.16 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PCK1 34 33
  • 84.19 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PCK1 34
  • 77 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PEPCK 34
  • 85 (a)
PCK1 33
  • 77.01 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PCK1 34
  • 80 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pck1 33
  • 75.83 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC68864 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pck1 34 33
  • 70.59 (n)
Dr.26132 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG10924 34 35 33
  • 63.86 (n)
Pepck 34 35
  • 62 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea R11A5.4 35
  • 57 (a)
pck-1 34
  • 54 (a)
pck-2 34
  • 54 (a)
pck-3 34
  • 25 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10673 34
  • 66 (a)
Cin.5335 33
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.5335 33
Species where no ortholog for PCK1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PCK1 Gene

Gene Tree for PCK1 (if available)
Gene Tree for PCK1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PCK1: view image

Paralogs for PCK1 Gene

Paralogs for PCK1 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for PCK1 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

  • B4DT64_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PCK1: view

Variants for PCK1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PCK1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 20 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1005929403 uncertain-significance, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) deficiency 57,566,169(+) G/A 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1041100224 uncertain-significance, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) deficiency 57,566,053(+) G/T 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1042521 benign, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) deficiency 57,561,480(+) A/C/G 5_prime_UTR_variant, coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs1042523 benign, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) deficiency 57,562,751(+) A/G coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs1042531 benign, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) deficiency 57,565,924(+) T/G 3_prime_UTR_variant

Variation tolerance for PCK1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 57.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.09; 69.04% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PCK1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PCK1 Gene

Disorders for PCK1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for PCK1 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PCK1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency, cytosolic (PCKDC) [MIM:261680]: An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by impaired gluconeogenesis, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, hepatomegaly, hepatic dysfunction, failure to thrive, lactic acidosis, and elevated tricarboxylic acid intermediates, particularly fumarate, in urine. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:24863970, ECO:0000269 PubMed:26971250, ECO:0000269 PubMed:28216384}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for PCK1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PCK1: view

No data available for Genatlas for PCK1 Gene

Publications for PCK1 Gene

  1. A Leu184Val polymorphism in PCK1 gene is associated with type 2 diabetes in Eastern Chinese population with BMI<23 kg/m2. (PMID: 19070910) Dong Y … Su Q (Diabetes research and clinical practice 2009) 3 22 44 58
  2. The promoter polymorphism -232C/G of the PCK1 gene is associated with type 2 diabetes in a UK-resident South Asian population. (PMID: 19725958) Rees SD … Kelly MA (BMC medical genetics 2009) 3 22 44 58
  3. The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia implicates glucose metabolism: association study in three independent samples. (PMID: 18460190) Olsen L … Werge T (BMC medical genetics 2008) 3 22 44 58
  4. Association of the promoter polymorphism -232C/G of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene (PCK1) with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. (PMID: 16620271) Gouni-Berthold I … Krone W (Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association 2006) 3 22 44 58
  5. Large-scale study of the -232C > G polymorphism of PCK1 in Type 2 diabetes. (PMID: 16978381) Wegner L … Pedersen O (Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association 2006) 3 22 44 58

Products for PCK1 Gene

Sources for PCK1 Gene

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