Aliases for PCK1 Gene
External Ids for PCK1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PCK1 Gene
This gene is a main control point for the regulation of gluconeogenesis. The cytosolic enzyme encoded by this gene, along with GTP, catalyzes the formation of phosphoenolpyruvate from oxaloacetate, with the release of carbon dioxide and GDP. The expression of this gene can be regulated by insulin, glucocorticoids, glucagon, cAMP, and diet. Defects in this gene are a cause of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency. A mitochondrial isozyme of the encoded protein also has been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for PCK1 Gene
PCK1 (Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PCK1 include Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Deficiency, Cytosolic and Pepck 1 Deficiency. Among its related pathways are Glucose metabolism and Estrogen Receptor Pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and GDP binding. An important paralog of this gene is PCK2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PCK1 Gene
Cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase that catalyzes the reversible decarboxylation and phosphorylation of oxaloacetate (OAA) and acts as the rate-limiting enzyme in gluconeogenesis (PubMed:30193097, PubMed:24863970, PubMed:26971250, PubMed:28216384). Regulates cataplerosis and anaplerosis, the processes that control the levels of metabolic intermediates in the citric acid cycle (PubMed:30193097, PubMed:24863970, PubMed:26971250, PubMed:28216384). At low glucose levels, it catalyzes the cataplerotic conversion of oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the rate-limiting step in the metabolic pathway that produces glucose from lactate and other precursors derived from the citric acid cycle (PubMed:30193097). At high glucose levels, it catalyzes the anaplerotic conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to oxaloacetate (PubMed:30193097). Acts as a regulator of formation and maintenance of memory CD8(+) T-cells: up-regulated in these cells, where it generates phosphoenolpyruvate, via gluconeogenesis (By similarity). The resultant phosphoenolpyruvate flows to glycogen and pentose phosphate pathway, which is essential for memory CD8(+) T-cells homeostasis (By similarity). In addition to the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity, also acts as a protein kinase when phosphorylated at Ser-90: phosphorylation at Ser-90 by AKT1 reduces the binding affinity to oxaloacetate and promotes an atypical serine protein kinase activity using GTP as donor (PubMed:32322062). The protein kinase activity regulates lipogenesis: upon phosphorylation at Ser-90, translocates to the endoplasmic reticulum and catalyzes phosphorylation of INSIG proteins (INSIG1 and INSIG2), thereby disrupting the interaction between INSIG proteins and SCAP and promoting nuclear translocation of SREBP proteins (SREBF1/SREBP1 or SREBF2/SREBP2) and subsequent transcription of downstream lipogenesis-related genes (PubMed:32322062).