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Aliases for PCCA Gene

Aliases for PCCA Gene

  • Propionyl-CoA Carboxylase Subunit Alpha 2 3
  • Propionyl Coenzyme A Carboxylase, Alpha Polypeptide 2 3
  • Propionyl-CoA Carboxylase Alpha Subunit 3 5
  • Propionyl-CoA Carboxylase Alpha Chain, Mitochondrial 3
  • Propanoyl-CoA:Carbon Dioxide Ligase Alpha Subunit 3
  • Propanoyl-CoA:Carbon Dioxide Ligase Subunit Alpha 4
  • Propionyl CoA Carboxylase, Alpha Polypeptide 3
  • PccA Complementation Group 3
  • PCCase Alpha Subunit 3
  • PCCase Subunit Alpha 4
  • EC 4

External Ids for PCCA Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PCCA Gene

  • GC13P099101
  • GC13P095128
  • GC13P099577
  • GC13P098439
  • GC13P099539
  • GC13P100741
  • GC13P081336

Summaries for PCCA Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PCCA Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha subunit of the heterodimeric mitochondrial enzyme Propionyl-CoA carboxylase. PCCA encodes the biotin-binding region of this enzyme. Mutations in either PCCA or PCCB (encoding the beta subunit) lead to an enzyme deficiency resulting in propionic acidemia. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GeneCards Summary for PCCA Gene

PCCA (Propionyl-CoA Carboxylase Subunit Alpha) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PCCA include Propionic Acidemia and Bile Duct Adenocarcinoma. Among its related pathways are Metabolism of water-soluble vitamins and cofactors and Defective HLCS causes multiple carboxylase deficiency. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include enzyme binding and biotin carboxylase activity. An important paralog of this gene is MCCC1.

Additional gene information for PCCA Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PCCA Gene

Genomics for PCCA Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PCCA Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PCCA Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH13J100088 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 650.7 +0.3 255 2.5 HDGF FOXA2 MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 IRF4 YY1 ZNF143 LOC105370333 PCCA ASNSP3 GC13P100113 PIR44331
GH13J100098 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 5.7 +11.1 11088 3.5 FOXA2 FEZF1 YY1 ATF7 ZNF202 RXRA ZNF488 REST ATF4 ZNF610 PCCA ASNSP3 PIR44331 GC13P100113
GH13J100049 Enhancer 0.5 ENCODE 4.7 -38.2 -38225 2 ZFHX2 GFI1B ZNF547 PRDM10 ZNF18 PCCA GC13M100051 GC13P100038
GH13J100350 Enhancer 0.4 UCNEbase 4.1 +261.9 261889 0.4 PCCA-AS1 PCCA GC13M100321 LOC105370335 GC13M100358
GH13J099955 Enhancer 0.7 FANTOM5 dbSUPER 1.2 -133.1 -133133 0.3 ZNF202 EZH2 ETS1 LOC101927437 ZIC5 ZIC2 PCCA GC13P099922
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PCCA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PCCA gene promoter:
  • Meis-1b
  • Meis-1
  • HOXA9B
  • HOXA9
  • En-1
  • NCX

Genomic Locations for PCCA Gene

Genomic Locations for PCCA Gene
441,423 bases
Plus strand
441,423 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PCCA Gene

Genes around PCCA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PCCA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PCCA Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PCCA Gene

Proteins for PCCA Gene

  • Protein details for PCCA Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Propionyl-CoA carboxylase alpha chain, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DKY8
    • B4DPF9
    • C9JPQ8
    • Q15979
    • Q8WXQ7

    Protein attributes for PCCA Gene

    728 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    80059 Da
    Name=biotin; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57586;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Probably a dodecamer composed of six biotin-containing alpha subunits and six beta subunits (Probable). Interacts (via the biotin carboxylation domain) with SIRT4 (PubMed:23438705). Interacts with SIRT3 and SIRT5 (PubMed:23438705).
    • Sequence=AAA60035.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=374, 378, 380, 395; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAH00140.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAK61392.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=CAA32763.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=23; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PCCA Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PCCA Gene


neXtProt entry for PCCA Gene

Post-translational modifications for PCCA Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PCCA Gene

Domains & Families for PCCA Gene

Gene Families for PCCA Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PCCA: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PCCA Gene

Function for PCCA Gene

Molecular function for PCCA Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + propanoyl-CoA + HCO(3)(-) = ADP + phosphate + (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
propionyl-CoA carboxylase,alpha polypeptide,biotin-dependent,mitochondrial conversion of propionyl CoA to methylmalonyl CoA,branched chain valine,isoleucine catabolism,energy pathway

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PCCA Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PCCA Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PCCA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004075 biotin carboxylase activity IEA --
GO:0004658 propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity TAS,IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 20725044
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0009374 biotin binding TAS 3460076
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PCCA: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PCCA: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for PCCA Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for PCCA Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PCCA:
  • Pcca Pcca<tm1Tmiy>

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PCCA

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PCCA Gene

Localization for PCCA Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PCCA Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PCCA gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PCCA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PCCA: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PCCA Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PCCA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PCCA: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P05165-PCCA_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Metabolic intermediate metabolism; propanoyl-CoA degradation; succinyl-CoA from propanoyl-CoA: step 1/3.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PCCA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006768 biotin metabolic process TAS --
GO:0019626 short-chain fatty acid catabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PCCA: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PCCA Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PCCA Gene

(6) Drugs for PCCA Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Biotin Approved, Investigational Nutra Target 53
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Propanoyl-CoA Experimental Pharma 0
spermidine Experimental Pharma Antagonist, Pore Blocker 0
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist, Activator, Full agonist, Antagonist, Potentiation, Pore Blocker 0

(8) Additional Compounds for PCCA Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 5'-Adenylphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine 5'-diphosphate
  • ADENOSINE-5'-diphosphATE
  • H3ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist, Partial agonist, Antagonist, Gating inhibitor 58-64-0
Carbonic acid
  • [co(OH)2]
  • Dihydrogen carbonate
  • H2CO3
  • Koehlensaeure
  • Carbonate
  • (R)-Methylmalonyl-CoA
  • (R)-Methylmalonyl-coenzyme A
  • (S)-2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoyl-CoA
  • (S)-Methyl-malonyl-CoA
  • (S)-Methyl-malonyl-coenzyme A
  • [po(OH)3]
  • Acide phosphorique
  • Acidum phosphoricum
  • H3PO4
  • Orthophosphoric acid
  • (S)-Methylmalonyl-CoA
  • (S)-Methylmalonyl-coenzyme A
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PCCA: view

Transcripts for PCCA Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PCCA Gene

Unigene Clusters for PCCA Gene

Propionyl CoA carboxylase, alpha polypeptide:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PCCA

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PCCA Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PCCA Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PCCA Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PCCA Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PCCA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x4.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PCCA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Kidney (9.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PCCA Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PCCA Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PCCA Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PCCA Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PCCA Gene

  • Kidney(4.6)
  • Liver(4.6)
  • Nervous system(3.4)
  • Adrenal gland(2.1)
  • Pancreas(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PCCA Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • lymphatic
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • head
  • jaw
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • skull
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • diaphragm
  • esophagus
  • heart
  • heart valve
  • lung
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
  • abdominal wall
  • adrenal gland
  • intestine
  • kidney
  • large intestine
  • liver
  • pancreas
  • stomach
  • pelvis
  • rectum
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • blood
  • bone marrow
  • coagulation system
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • red blood cell
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • sweat gland
  • vertebrae
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PCCA: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PCCA Gene

Orthologs for PCCA Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PCCA Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PCCA 34 33
  • 99.5 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PCCA 34 33
  • 92.4 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PCCA 34 33
  • 89.19 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PCCA 34
  • 87 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pcca 16 34 33
  • 86.74 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pcca 33
  • 86.58 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PCCA 34
  • 81 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PCCA 34 33
  • 81.93 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PCCA 34
  • 79 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pcca 33
  • 76.57 (n)
Str.11243 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.25798 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pcca 34 33
  • 69.59 (n)
Dr.23782 33
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pcca-1 34 33
  • 59.29 (n)
F27D9.5 35
  • 58 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes DUR1,2 34
  • 12 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 58 (a)
Cin.4365 33
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.4365 33
Species where no ortholog for PCCA was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PCCA Gene

Gene Tree for PCCA (if available)
Gene Tree for PCCA (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PCCA: view image

Paralogs for PCCA Gene

Paralogs for PCCA Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for PCCA Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

  • H0Y4B9_HUMAN
  • H0Y5U0_HUMAN
  • H0Y798_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PCCA: view

Variants for PCCA Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PCCA Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 13 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1007744472 uncertain-significance, Propionic acidemia 100,530,282(+) G/A 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs111778723 benign, not specified, Propionic acidemia 100,111,821(+) TGTGT/TGT genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs113356477 uncertain-significance, Propionic acidemia 100,530,325(+) T/G 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs118169528 conflicting-interpretations-of-pathogenicity, Propionic acidemia, Propionic acidemia type I (PA-1) [MIM:606054] 100,368,504(+) G/T coding_sequence_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs121964957 likely-benign, pathogenic, not specified, Propionic acidemia 100,268,731(+) A/C/G/T 5_prime_UTR_variant, coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant, stop_gained, synonymous_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PCCA Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv577e212 CNV loss 25503493
esv2490241 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2634464 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2668656 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2669958 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2671626 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2747877 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2747878 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2747879 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2747880 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3303042 CNV tandem duplication 20981092
esv3308710 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3364634 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3408110 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3582760 CNV gain 25503493
esv3633340 CNV loss 21293372
esv3633341 CNV loss 21293372
esv3633343 CNV loss 21293372
esv3633344 CNV loss 21293372
esv3633345 CNV loss 21293372
esv3633346 CNV loss 21293372
esv3892434 CNV loss 25118596
esv3892435 CNV loss 25118596
nsv1037414 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1037571 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1069769 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1120424 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1134345 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv473298 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv474342 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv507728 OTHER sequence alteration 20534489
nsv507729 OTHER sequence alteration 20534489
nsv509512 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv518301 CNV loss 19592680
nsv523329 CNV loss 19592680
nsv526668 CNV gain 19592680
nsv7247 OTHER inversion 18451855
nsv832697 CNV loss 17160897
nsv832698 CNV loss 17160897
nsv977272 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv977273 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for PCCA Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 11.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.79; 58.18% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PCCA Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PCCA Gene

Disorders for PCCA Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for PCCA Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
propionic acidemia
  • propionyl-coa carboxylase deficiency
bile duct adenocarcinoma
organic acidemia
  • organic acid metabolism disorder
hard palate cancer
  • hard palate
amino acid metabolic disorder
  • inborn errors of amino acid metabolism
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PCCA in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Propionic acidemia type I (PA-1) [MIM:606054]: Life-threatening disease characterized by episodic vomiting, lethargy and ketosis, neutropenia, periodic thrombocytopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, developmental retardation, and intolerance to protein. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10101253, ECO:0000269 PubMed:10329019, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12559849, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15059621}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for PCCA Gene

hyperglycinemia,ketotic,propionic acidemia A

Additional Disease Information for PCCA

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PCCA: view

Publications for PCCA Gene

  1. Mutation spectrum of the PCCA and PCCB genes in Japanese patients with propionic acidemia. (PMID: 15059621) Yang X … Ohura T (Molecular genetics and metabolism 2004) 3 4 22 58
  2. Propionic acidemia: identification of twenty-four novel mutations in Europe and North America. (PMID: 12559849) Pérez B … Ugarte M (Molecular genetics and metabolism 2003) 3 4 22 58
  3. Functional characterization of PCCA mutations causing propionic acidemia. (PMID: 12385775) Clavero S … Desviat LR (Biochimica et biophysica acta 2002) 3 22 25 58
  4. Structure of the PCCA gene and distribution of mutations causing propionic acidemia. (PMID: 11592820) Campeau E … Gravel RA (Molecular genetics and metabolism 2001) 3 4 22 58
  5. Genetic heterogeneity in propionic acidemia patients with alpha-subunit defects. Identification of five novel mutations, one of them causing instability of the protein. (PMID: 10101253) Richard E … Ugarte M (Biochimica et biophysica acta 1999) 3 4 22 58

Products for PCCA Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for PCCA

Sources for PCCA Gene

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