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Aliases for PARS2 Gene

Aliases for PARS2 Gene

  • Prolyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial 2 3 5
  • Prolyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial (Putative) 2 3
  • Proline TRNA Ligase 2, Mitochondrial (Putative) 2 3
  • EC 4 56
  • ProRS 3 4
  • Probable Proline--TRNA Ligase, Mitochondrial 3
  • Prolyl-TRNA Synthetase 4
  • MT-PRORS 3

External Ids for PARS2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PARS2 Gene

  • GC01M054935
  • GC01M054995
  • GC01M055222
  • GC01M053336

Summaries for PARS2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PARS2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a putative member of the class II family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes play a critical role in protein biosynthesis by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. This protein is encoded by the nuclear genome but is likely to be imported to the mitochondrion where it is thought to catalyze the ligation of proline to tRNA molecules. Mutations have been found in this gene in some patients with Alpers syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]

GeneCards Summary for PARS2 Gene

PARS2 (Prolyl-TRNA Synthetase 2, Mitochondrial) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Gene Expression and tRNA Aminoacylation. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and proline-tRNA ligase activity.

Additional gene information for PARS2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PARS2 Gene

Genomics for PARS2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PARS2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PARS2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01I054763 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 561.5 +0.1 127 1.9 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 POLR2B PARS2 NDC1 LRRC42 SSBP3-AS1 TTC4 PIR47125
GH01I054051 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 19.9 +711.4 711399 3.7 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 E2F8 ZNF416 ZNF143 ZNF548 SP3 NFYC SSRP1 TCEANC2 MIR4781 TMEM59 MAGOH NDC1 SSBP3-AS1 HSPB11 LRRC42 PARS2 CYB5RL
GH01I054792 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.8 -33.0 -32969 9.5 HDGF ATF1 ARID4B DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 ZNF143 ATF7 RUNX3 SP5 TTC22 LEXM PARS2 TTC4 DHCR24 ENSG00000242396 ENSG00000233203 ENSG00000237453 PIR51709 GC01M054800
GH01I054882 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.5 -121.6 -121641 7.8 FOXA2 MLX ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 ENSG00000233203 DHCR24 ENSG00000242396 SSBP3-AS1 HSPB11 ENSG00000279049 TMEM61 TTC22 PARS2 LRRC42
GH01I053942 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 10.4 +819.2 819241 5.4 HDGF SMAD1 ARID4B SIN3A YBX1 FEZF1 ZNF2 YY1 POLR2B ZNF766 HSPB11 LRRC42 MAGOH SSBP3-AS1 NDC1 CYB5RL PARS2 TTC4 TCEANC2 GC01P053939
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around PARS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PARS2 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for PARS2 Gene

Genomic Locations for PARS2 Gene
9,035 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PARS2 Gene

Genes around PARS2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PARS2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PARS2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PARS2 Gene

Proteins for PARS2 Gene

  • Protein details for PARS2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Probable proline--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K0W4
    • Q9H6S5
    • Q9UFT1

    Protein attributes for PARS2 Gene

    475 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    53263 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=BAB15178.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for PARS2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PARS2 Gene


Post-translational modifications for PARS2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys139 and isoforms=175
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PARS2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for PARS2 Gene

Gene Families for PARS2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PARS2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PARS2: view

Function for PARS2 Gene

Molecular function for PARS2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-proline + tRNA(Pro) = AMP + diphosphate + L-prolyl-tRNA(Pro).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PARS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
GO:0004827 proline-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016874 ligase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARS2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PARS2: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PARS2

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PARS2 Gene

Localization for PARS2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARS2 Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PARS2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytoskeleton 2
peroxisome 2
cytosol 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Mitochondria (2)
  • Nucleoli fibrillar center (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARS2: view

Pathways & Interactions for PARS2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PARS2: view

Pathways by source for PARS2 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for PARS2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PARS2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation IEA --
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation IEA --
GO:0006433 prolyl-tRNA aminoacylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARS2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PARS2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PARS2 Gene

(4) Drugs for PARS2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Proline Approved Nutra Target 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved, Investigational Nutra 0
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist 0

(5) Additional Compounds for PARS2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion
  • (P2O74-)Diphosphate
  • Diphosphate
  • Diphosphoric acid
  • PPi
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PARS2: view

Transcripts for PARS2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PARS2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(5) Additional mRNA sequences :
(62) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for PARS2 Gene

Prolyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial (putative):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PARS2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PARS2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PARS2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PARS2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PARS2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (14.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for PARS2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PARS2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PARS2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PARS2 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PARS2 Gene

  • Muscle(4.2)
  • Liver(4.1)
  • Nervous system(4.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PARS2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PARS2 Gene

Orthologs for PARS2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PARS2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PARS2 33 34
  • 99.72 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PARS2 33 34
  • 87.86 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PARS2 33
  • 85.54 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pars2 33
  • 83.65 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pars2 33 16 34
  • 83.16 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PARS2 34
  • 74 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PARS2 34
  • 61 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PARS2 33 34
  • 68.38 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PARS2 34
  • 64 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pars2 33
  • 60.45 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pars2 33 34
  • 63.22 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP003589 33
  • 54.14 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Aats-pro 33 34
  • 53.51 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pars-2 33 34
  • 48.39 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ACR233W 33
  • 48.75 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes AIM10 33 34 36
  • 47.04 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E19801g 33
  • 45.2 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU09892 33
  • 50.69 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPBC24C6.03 33
  • 49.32 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 42 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PARS2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PARS2 Gene

Gene Tree for PARS2 (if available)
Gene Tree for PARS2 (if available)

Paralogs for PARS2 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for PARS2 Gene

Variants for PARS2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PARS2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1057522093 likely-benign, not specified 54,757,908(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs141040125 likely-benign, not specified 54,757,863(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs143717155 likely-benign, not specified 54,758,004(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs145967472 likely-benign, not specified 54,758,673(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs756197119 likely-benign, not specified 54,759,012(-) G/A/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, synonymous_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PARS2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv166n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv38e212 CNV gain 25503493
nsv1000673 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1004778 CNV gain 25217958
nsv461561 CNV gain 19166990
nsv461594 CNV gain 19166990
nsv546266 CNV gain 21841781
nsv546269 CNV gain 21841781
nsv817614 CNV gain 22305530

Variation tolerance for PARS2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 29.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 6.28; 76.45% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PARS2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARS2 Gene

Disorders for PARS2 Gene

Additional Disease Information for PARS2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for PARS2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PARS2 Gene

Publications for PARS2 Gene

  1. Whole exome sequencing reveals mutations in NARS2 and PARS2, encoding the mitochondrial asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase and prolyl-tRNA synthetase, in patients with Alpers syndrome. (PMID: 25629079) Sofou K … Asin-Cayuela J (Molecular genetics & genomic medicine 2015) 2 3 58
  2. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson SL … O'Brien SJ (PloS one 2010) 3 44 58
  3. The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. (PMID: 16710414) Gregory SG … Prigmore E (Nature 2006) 3 4 58
  4. Toward the full set of human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: characterization of AspRS and TyrRS. (PMID: 15779907) Bonnefond L … Sissler M (Biochemistry 2005) 2 3 58
  5. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T … Sugano S (Nature genetics 2004) 3 4 58

Products for PARS2 Gene

Sources for PARS2 Gene

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