This gene encodes poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase-like 1 protein, which is capable of catalyzing a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction. This protein has a catalytic domain which is homologous to that of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase, but lacks an N-terminal DNA binding domain which activates the C-terminal catalytic domain of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase. Since this protein is not ... See more...

Aliases for PARP4 Gene

Aliases for PARP4 Gene

  • Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Family Member 4 2 3 5
  • Vault Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 2 3 4
  • ARTD4 2 3 4
  • VPARP 2 3 4
  • ADP-Ribosyltransferase (NAD+; Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase)-Like 1 2 3
  • ADP-Ribosyltransferase Diphtheria Toxin-Like 4 3 4
  • Von Willebrand Factor A Domain Containing 5C 2 3
  • PARP-Related/IalphaI-Related H5/Proline-Rich 3 4
  • Protein Mono-ADP-Ribosyltransferase PARP4 3 4
  • Poly [ADP-Ribose] Polymerase 4 3 4
  • 193 KDa Vault Protein 3 4
  • ADPRTL1 3 4
  • PARP-4 3 4
  • VAULT3 2 3
  • PARPL 3 4
  • VWA5C 2 3
  • PH5P 3 4
  • P193 2 3
  • Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)Transferase-Like 1 3
  • Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase 3
  • Vault Protein, 193-KDa 3
  • I-Alpha-I-Related 3
  • H5 Proline-Rich 3
  • PARP-Related 3
  • EC 2.4.2.- 4
  • KIAA0177 4
  • PARP4 5

External Ids for PARP4 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PARP4 Gene


Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PARP4 Gene

  • GC13M023893
  • GC13M024995
  • GC13M005807

Summaries for PARP4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PARP4 Gene

  • This gene encodes poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase-like 1 protein, which is capable of catalyzing a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction. This protein has a catalytic domain which is homologous to that of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase, but lacks an N-terminal DNA binding domain which activates the C-terminal catalytic domain of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase. Since this protein is not capable of binding DNA directly, its transferase activity may be activated by other factors such as protein-protein interaction mediated by the extensive carboxyl terminus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PARP4 Gene

PARP4 (Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Family Member 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PARP4 include Osebold-Remondini Syndrome and Cardia Cancer. Among its related pathways are Apoptosis Modulation and Signaling and Metabolism of water-soluble vitamins and cofactors. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include enzyme binding and NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is VWA5B1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PARP4 Gene

  • Mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase that mediates mono-ADP-ribosylation of target proteins.

Tocris Summary for PARP4 Gene

  • Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) catalyzes the post-translational modification of proteins by the addition of multiple ADP-ribose moieties. PARP transfers ADP-ribose from nicotinamide dinucleotide (NAD) to Glu/Asp residues on the substrate protein.

Gene Wiki entry for PARP4 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PARP4 Gene

Genomics for PARP4 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for PARP4 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PARP4 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PARP4

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PARP4 gene promoter:
  • E47
  • Hand1
  • STAT1
  • STAT1alpha
  • STAT1beta
  • STAT2
  • STAT3
  • STAT4
  • STAT5A
  • STAT5B

Genomic Locations for PARP4 Gene

Latest Assembly
92,064 bases
Minus strand

Previous Assembly
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
91,848 bases
Minus strand

(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
91,885 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PARP4 Gene

Genes around PARP4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PARP4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PARP4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PARP4 Gene

Proteins for PARP4 Gene

  • Protein details for PARP4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase PARP4
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O75903
    • Q14682
    • Q5QNZ9
    • Q9H1M6

    Protein attributes for PARP4 Gene

    1724 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    192595 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of the vault ribonucleoprotein particle, at least composed of MVP, PARP4 and one or more vault RNAs (vRNAs) (PubMed:10477748). Interacts with TEP1 (PubMed:10551828, PubMed:15169895).
    • Sequence=BAA11494.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Extended N-terminus.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for PARP4 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PARP4 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PARP4 Gene

Antibodies for research

  • Abcam antibodies for PARP4
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SCBT) Antibodies for PARP4

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PARP4 Gene

Domains & Families for PARP4 Gene

Gene Families for PARP4 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for PARP4 Gene

  • Von Willebrand factor type A domain signature
  • BRCT domain

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PARP4 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • PARP4 protein (A0PJ82_HUMAN)
  • Vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP4_HUMAN)
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PARP4: view

No data available for Graphical View of Domain Structure and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARP4 Gene

Function for PARP4 Gene

Molecular function for PARP4 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase that mediates mono-ADP-ribosylation of target proteins.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=L-aspartyl-[protein] + NAD(+) = 4-O-(ADP-D-ribosyl)-L-aspartyl-[protein] + nicotinamide; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:54424, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9867, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:13832, ChEBI:CHEBI:17154, ChEBI:CHEBI:29961, ChEBI:CHEBI:57540, ChEBI:CHEBI:138102; Evidence={ECO:0000305};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=L-glutamyl-[protein] + NAD(+) = 5-O-(ADP-D-ribosyl)-L-glutamyl-[protein] + nicotinamide; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:58224, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:10208, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:15089, ChEBI:CHEBI:17154, ChEBI:CHEBI:29973, ChEBI:CHEBI:57540, ChEBI:CHEBI:142540; Evidence={ECO:0000305};.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PARP4 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PARP4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PARP4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003677 DNA binding TAS 10100603
GO:0003950 NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity TAS,NAS 10644454
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15169895
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0016757 transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARP4: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PARP4: view

Animal Models for PARP4 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PARP4:

Animal Models for research

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PARP4

miRNA for PARP4 Gene

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PARP4

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PARP4 Gene

Localization for PARP4 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARP4 Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle. Note=Also found in the nucleus, associated with mitotic spindles. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10477748}.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PARP4 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
nucleus 5
extracellular 4
cytosol 4
plasma membrane 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 0

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PARP4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus NAS 10644454
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA 10477748
GO:0005819 spindle IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IDA --
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARP4: view

Pathways & Interactions for PARP4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PARP4: view

Pathways by source for PARP4 Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for PARP4 Gene
  • NAD metabolism
4 Qiagen pathways for PARP4 Gene
  • all-trans-Retinoic Acid Mediated Apoptosis
  • Cellular Apoptosis Pathway
  • Granzyme Pathway
  • UVA-Induced MAPK Signaling
1 GeneTex pathway for PARP4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PARP4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006281 DNA repair TAS,NAS 12101391
GO:0006464 cellular protein modification process IDA 10477748
GO:0006471 protein ADP-ribosylation NAS 10644454
GO:0006954 inflammatory response IMP 12123754
GO:0006974 cellular response to DNA damage stimulus NAS 10477748
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARP4: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PARP4 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PARP4 Gene

(10) Drugs for PARP4 Gene - From: ApexBio, HMDB, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Nicotinamide Approved, Investigational Pharma 474,474
NADH Approved Nutra 0
NU1025 Experimental Pharma PARP inhibitor,potent and novel, Potent PARP inhibitor 0
NAD Experimental Pharma 0
INO-1001 Investigational Pharma Potent PARP inhibitor 0

(2) Additional Compounds for PARP4 Gene - From: Novoseek and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(3) Tocris Compounds for PARP4 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
3-Aminobenzamide PARP inhibitor 3544-24-9
4-HQN PARP inhibitor 491-36-1
NU 1025 Potent PARP inhibitor 90417-38-2

(7) ApexBio Compounds for PARP4 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
4-HQN PARP inhibitor 491-36-1
AG-14361 Potent PARP1 inhibitor 328543-09-5
Iniparib (BSI-201) PARP1 inhibitor,intravenously adminsitered 160003-66-7
INO-1001 Potent PARP inhibitor 3544-24-9
ME0328 PARP inhibitor,potent and selective 1445251-22-8
NU 1025 PARP inhibitor,potent and novel 90417-38-2
UPF 1069 Selective PARP2 inhibitor 1048371-03-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PARP4: view

Drug products for research

Transcripts for PARP4 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PARP4 Gene

10 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
3 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PARP4

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PARP4 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PARP4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for

Expression for PARP4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PARP4 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PARP4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x4.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PARP4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Islet of Langerhans (20.8), Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (11.2), and Bone marrow stromal cell (6.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PARP4 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PARP4 Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PARP4

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PARP4 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PARP4 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed; the highest levels are in the kidney; also detected in heart, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, spleen, leukocytes and pancreas.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PARP4 Gene

  • Liver(4.5)
  • Bone marrow(4.2)
  • Intestine(2.9)
  • Nervous system(2.9)
  • Spleen(2.3)
  • Lung(2.2)
  • Kidney(2.2)
  • Adrenal gland(2.1)
  • Skin(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PARP4: view

Primer products for research

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PARP4 Gene

Orthologs for PARP4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PARP4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PARP4 29 30
  • 98.94 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PARP4 29
  • 78.56 (n)
  • 70 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Parp4 29 16 30
  • 78.12 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PARP4 29 30
  • 77.25 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Parp4 29
  • 76.3 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PARP4 30
  • 53 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 30
  • 16 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PARP4 29
  • 65.18 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PARP4 30
  • 44 (a)
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100170623 29
  • 58.96 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:dkey-174k18.1 29
  • 54.7 (n)
PARP4 30
  • 36 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PARP4 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PARP4 Gene

Gene Tree for PARP4 (if available)
Gene Tree for PARP4 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PARP4: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for PARP4

Paralogs for PARP4 Gene

Paralogs for PARP4 Gene Pseudogenes for PARP4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PARP4: view

Variants for PARP4 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PARP4 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 13 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs142799760 Benign: not provided 24,484,717(-) G/A
NM_006437.4(PARP4):c.1384C>T (p.Arg462Cys)
rs34689435 Benign: not provided 24,452,448(-) T/Cp.Lys991Arg
NM_006437.4(PARP4):c.2972A>G (p.Lys991Arg)
rs4986823 Benign: not provided 24,435,394(-) T/C
NM_006437.4(PARP4):c.3747A>G (p.Lys1249=)
rs55888616 Benign: not provided 24,441,954(-) C/T
NM_006437.4(PARP4):c.3558G>A (p.Ser1186=)
rs567046721 Likely Benign: not provided 24,478,204(-) G/A
NM_006437.4(PARP4):c.1521C>T (p.Leu507=)

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for PARP4 Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PARP4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1616n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv1617n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv1618n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv1619n100 CNV gain 25217958
esv2751138 CNV gain 17911159
esv2759927 CNV loss 17122850
esv2761200 CNV gain+loss 21179565
esv2763016 CNV loss 21179565
esv3582215 CNV gain 25503493
esv3631556 CNV loss 21293372
esv3631557 CNV loss 21293372
esv3631558 CNV loss 21293372
esv3892310 CNV gain 25118596
nsv1035459 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1036613 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1037960 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1048909 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1051405 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1078303 OTHER inversion 25765185
nsv1122797 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1140246 OTHER inversion 24896259
nsv1151909 OTHER inversion 26484159
nsv64523 CNV insertion 16902084
nsv832567 CNV loss 17160897
nsv976092 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv977216 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv983563 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for PARP4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 99.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 10.56; 91.22% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PARP4 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARP4 Gene

Disorders for PARP4 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for PARP4 Gene - From: COP and GCD

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
osebold-remondini syndrome
  • brachymesophalangy with mesomelic short limbs and carpal and tarsal osseous abnormalities
cardia cancer
  • ca cardia - stomach
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PARP4 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PARP4

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PARP4: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PARP4 Gene

Publications for PARP4 Gene

  1. Identification of a novel gene (ADPRTL1) encoding a potential Poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase protein. (PMID: 10644454) Still IH … Cowell JK (Genomics 1999) 2 3 4 22
  2. Vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is associated with mammalian telomerase and is dispensable for telomerase function and vault structure in vivo. (PMID: 15169895) Liu Y … Harrington L (Molecular and cellular biology 2004) 3 4 22
  3. Family-wide analysis of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity. (PMID: 25043379) Vyas S … Chang P (Nature communications 2014) 3 4
  4. GWAS for discovery and replication of genetic loci associated with sudden cardiac arrest in patients with coronary artery disease. (PMID: 21658281) Aouizerat BE … Tseng ZH (BMC cardiovascular disorders 2011) 3 40
  5. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose JE … Uhl GR (Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2010) 3 40

Products for PARP4 Gene

Sources for PARP4 Gene