PARP15 is a macrodomain-containing transcriptional repressor with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity (Aguiar et al., 2005 [PubMed 16061477]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2008] See more...

Aliases for PARP15 Gene

Aliases for PARP15 Gene

  • Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Family Member 15 2 3 5
  • ARTD7 2 3 4
  • ADP-Ribosyltransferase Diphtheria Toxin-Like 7 3 4
  • Protein Mono-ADP-Ribosyltransferase PARP15 3 4
  • B-Aggressive Lymphoma Protein 3 3 4
  • Poly [ADP-Ribose] Polymerase 15 3 4
  • PARP-15 3 4
  • PART7 2 3
  • BAL3 3 4
  • B-Aggressive Lymphoma 3 3
  • EC 50
  • EC 2.4.2.- 4
  • FLJ40597 2
  • PARP15 5

External Ids for PARP15 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PARP15 Gene

  • GC03P123817
  • GC03P122296
  • GC03P119669

Summaries for PARP15 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PARP15 Gene

  • PARP15 is a macrodomain-containing transcriptional repressor with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity (Aguiar et al., 2005 [PubMed 16061477]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PARP15 Gene

PARP15 (Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Family Member 15) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PARP15 include Bejel and Arthrogryposis, Renal Dysfunction, And Cholestasis 1. Among its related pathways are Granzyme Pathway and Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PARP14.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PARP15 Gene

  • Mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase that mediates mono-ADP-ribosylation of target proteins (PubMed:16061477, PubMed:25043379, PubMed:25635049). Acts as a negative regulator of transcription (PubMed:16061477).

Tocris Summary for PARP15 Gene

  • Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) catalyzes the post-translational modification of proteins by the addition of multiple ADP-ribose moieties. PARP transfers ADP-ribose from nicotinamide dinucleotide (NAD) to Glu/Asp residues on the substrate protein.

No data available for CIViC Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PARP15 Gene

Genomics for PARP15 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for PARP15 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH03J122575 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 269.9 +1.5 1520 4.4 BCLAF1 SP1 POLR2A ATF3 BCL11A ZNF592 TARDBP TRIM22 SMC3 IRF4 PARP15 WDR5B-DT PARP14 SLC49A4 PARP9 DTX3L HSPBAP1 CD86 piR-38351-319
GH03J122589 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.9 +13.1 13075 2.4 BCLAF1 BCL11A ZNF592 TRIM22 IRF4 ZNF316 EBF1 CBFB NFE2 BHLHE40 PARP14 PARP15 DTX3L IQCB1 piR-38351-319
GH03J122572 Enhancer 1.1 ENCODE dbSUPER 10.6 -2.5 -2530 1.3 SSRP1 CEBPA ATF3 YY1 BCL11A SIX4 ZNF341 HOMEZ NR2C1 MAX PARP14 ENSG00000273454 PARP15 DTX3L PARP9
GH03J122609 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 8.6 +33.9 33906 2.1 BCLAF1 SP1 JUND BCL11A CEBPB ZNF592 TRIM22 PRDM1 SMC3 IRF4 PARP15 piR-52079-145 piR-48128 HSALNG0028501 PARP14
GH03J122598 Enhancer 0.4 Ensembl 21.3 +22.9 22875 1.2 ELF1 L3MBTL2 NR4A1 PARP15 PARP14 HSPBAP1 SLC49A4 LOC100421636 piR-52079-145 HSALNG0028501
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PARP15 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PARP15

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PARP15 gene promoter:
  • Bach1
  • C/EBPalpha
  • Cart-1
  • CP2
  • FOXO1
  • FOXO1a
  • IRF-2
  • MZF-1
  • Nkx2-5

Genomic Locations for PARP15 Gene

Latest Assembly
63,122 bases
Plus strand

Previous Assembly
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
61,398 bases
Plus strand

(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
61,446 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PARP15 Gene

Genes around PARP15 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PARP15 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PARP15 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PARP15 Gene

Proteins for PARP15 Gene

  • Protein details for PARP15 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase PARP15
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • J3KR47
    • Q8N1K3

    Protein attributes for PARP15 Gene

    678 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    74576 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=AAY64451.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Truncated N-terminus.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PARP15 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PARP15 Gene


neXtProt entry for PARP15 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PARP15 Gene


Post-translational modifications for PARP15 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for PARP15 Gene

Gene Families for PARP15 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for PARP15 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PARP15 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • B-aggressive lymphoma protein 3 (PAR15_HUMAN)
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PARP15: view

No data available for Graphical View of Domain Structure and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARP15 Gene

Function for PARP15 Gene

Molecular function for PARP15 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase that mediates mono-ADP-ribosylation of target proteins (PubMed:16061477, PubMed:25043379, PubMed:25635049). Acts as a negative regulator of transcription (PubMed:16061477).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=L-aspartyl-[protein] + NAD(+) = 4-O-(ADP-D-ribosyl)-L-aspartyl-[protein] + nicotinamide; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:54424, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9867, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:13832, ChEBI:CHEBI:17154, ChEBI:CHEBI:29961, ChEBI:CHEBI:57540, ChEBI:CHEBI:138102; Evidence={ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q9UKK3};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=L-glutamyl-[protein] + NAD(+) = 5-O-(ADP-D-ribosyl)-L-glutamyl-[protein] + nicotinamide; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:58224, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:10208, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:15089, ChEBI:CHEBI:17154, ChEBI:CHEBI:29973, ChEBI:CHEBI:57540, ChEBI:CHEBI:142540; Evidence={ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q9UKK3};.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PARP15 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PARP15 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PARP15 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003714 transcription corepressor activity IMP 16061477
GO:0003950 NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity IEA,IMP 16061477
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23473667
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0016757 transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARP15: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PARP15: view

miRNA for PARP15 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PARP15

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PARP15

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PARP15 Gene

Localization for PARP15 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARP15 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PARP15 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 4
cytosol 2
plasma membrane 1
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1
peroxisome 0

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PARP15 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IBA,IC 16061477
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARP15: view

Pathways & Interactions for PARP15 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for PARP15 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 all-trans-Retinoic Acid Mediated Apoptosis
2 Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
3 Granzyme Pathway
4 UVA-Induced MAPK Signaling
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PARP15: view

Pathways by source for PARP15 Gene

4 Qiagen pathways for PARP15 Gene
  • all-trans-Retinoic Acid Mediated Apoptosis
  • Cellular Apoptosis Pathway
  • Granzyme Pathway
  • UVA-Induced MAPK Signaling

Interacting Proteins for PARP15 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PARP15 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IMP 16061477
GO:0010629 negative regulation of gene expression IBA 21873635
GO:0070212 protein poly-ADP-ribosylation IBA,IMP 16061477
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARP15: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PARP15 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PARP15 Gene

(5) Drugs for PARP15 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Nicotinamide Approved, Investigational Pharma 474,474
N~2~,N~2~-DIMETHYL-N~1~-(6-OXO-5,6-DIHYDROPHENANTHRIDIN-2-YL)GLYCINAMIDE Experimental Pharma Target 0
NAD Experimental Pharma 0
NU1025 Experimental Pharma PARP inhibitor,potent and novel, Potent PARP inhibitor 0
4-HQN Pharma PARP inhibitor 0

(1) Additional Compounds for PARP15 Gene - From: Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(3) Tocris Compounds for PARP15 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
3-Aminobenzamide PARP inhibitor 3544-24-9
4-HQN PARP inhibitor 491-36-1
NU 1025 Potent PARP inhibitor 90417-38-2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PARP15: view

Transcripts for PARP15 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PARP15 Gene

9 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
6 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PARP15

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PARP15 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PARP15 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for

Expression for PARP15 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PARP15 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PARP15 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Spleen (x11.6), Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (x6.9), and Whole Blood (x4.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PARP15 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adipocyte (54.1) and Blymphocyte (14.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PARP15 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PARP15 Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PARP15

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PARP15 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PARP15 Gene

  • Liver(4.3)
  • Intestine(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PARP15: view

Primer products for research

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PARP15 Gene

Orthologs for PARP15 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PARP15 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PARP15 29 30
  • 99.21 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PARP15 29 30
  • 78.18 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 30
  • 18 (a)
-- 30
  • 16 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 30
  • 18 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 30
  • 31 (a)
-- 30
  • 16 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii CABZ01031892.1 30
  • 15 (a)
si:ch211-219a4.3 30
  • 14 (a)
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 30
  • 29 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PARP15 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • Cow (Bos Taurus)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Mouse (Mus musculus)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PARP15 Gene

Gene Tree for PARP15 (if available)
Gene Tree for PARP15 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PARP15: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for PARP15

Paralogs for PARP15 Gene

Paralogs for PARP15 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for PARP15 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

  • B7ZL48_HUMAN
  • C9J7L3_HUMAN
  • J3KR47_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PARP15: view

Variants for PARP15 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PARP15 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 03 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs115551100 Benign: not provided 122,613,219(+) T/C
NM_001113523.3(PARP15):c.722T>C (p.Leu241Ser)
rs34383355 Benign: not provided 122,632,208(+) G/Ap.Ala521Thr
NM_001113523.3(PARP15):c.1561G>A (p.Ala521Thr)
rs12489170 -- p.Gly628Arg
rs6793271 -- p.Arg337Lys

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for PARP15 Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PARP15 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2512026 CNV deletion 19546169
nsv829705 CNV loss 17160897
nsv967054 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for PARP15 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 89.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 11.03; 92.11% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PARP15 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARP15 Gene

Disorders for PARP15 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for PARP15 Gene - From: COP

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • njovera
arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis 1
  • arcs1
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for PARP15

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PARP15: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PARP15 Gene

Publications for PARP15 Gene

  1. Structural basis for lack of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-13/zinc finger antiviral protein. (PMID: 25635049) Karlberg T … Schüler H (The Journal of biological chemistry 2015) 3 4
  2. Family-wide analysis of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity. (PMID: 25043379) Vyas S … Chang P (Nature communications 2014) 3 4
  3. A mega-analysis of genome-wide association studies for major depressive disorder. (PMID: 22472876) Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium … Sullivan PF (Molecular psychiatry 2013) 3 40
  4. Recognition of mono-ADP-ribosylated ARTD10 substrates by ARTD8 macrodomains. (PMID: 23473667) Forst AH … Lüscher B (Structure (London, England : 1993) 2013) 3 4
  5. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 40

Products for PARP15 Gene

Sources for PARP15 Gene