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Aliases for PARG Gene

Aliases for PARG Gene

  • Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase 2 3 3 5
  • Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase 60 KDa Isoform 3
  • Mitochondrial Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase 3
  • EC 3.2.1.143 4
  • PARG99 3

External Ids for PARG Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PARG Gene

  • GC10P050148
  • GC10M049974
  • GC10M050918
  • GC10M050371
  • GC10M050572
  • GC10P051293
  • GC10M051026
  • GC10M045291

Summaries for PARG Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PARG Gene

  • Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is the major enzyme responsible for the catabolism of poly(ADP-ribose), a reversible covalent-modifier of chromosomal proteins. The protein is found in many tissues and may be subject to proteolysis generating smaller, active products. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

GeneCards Summary for PARG Gene

PARG (Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Telomere C-strand (Lagging Strand) Synthesis and DNA Double-Strand Break Repair. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARG Gene

  • Poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized after DNA damage is only present transiently and is rapidly degraded by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PubMed:23102699). PARG acts both as an endo- and exoglycosidase, releasing PAR of different length as well as ADP-ribose monomers (PubMed:23102699). Required for retinoid acid-dependent gene transactivation, probably by dePARsylating histone demethylase KDM4D, allowing chromatin derepression at RAR-dependent gene promoters (PubMed:23102699). Involved in the synthesis of ATP in the nucleus, together with PARP1, NMNAT1 and NUDT5 (PubMed:27257257). Nuclear ATP generation is required for extensive chromatin remodeling events that are energy-consuming (PubMed:27257257).

Gene Wiki entry for PARG Gene

Additional gene information for PARG Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PARG Gene

Genomics for PARG Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PARG Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PARG Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH10J050618 Promoter/Enhancer 2.8 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 19.8 -652.2 -652183 8.4 CLOCK ZFP64 DMAP1 YY1 ZNF213 ZNF143 ZNF263 SP3 ZNF610 GLIS1 SGMS1 GC10P050623 GC10P050620 AGAP6 LINC00843 WASHC2A BEND3P1 PARG RNA5SP317 SGMS1-AS1
GH10J050067 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 23.3 -97.8 -97828 1.7 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 WASHC2A FAM21EP LINC00843 ERCC6 AGAP6 PARG RNA5SP317 MAPK6PS6 LOC100421009 PGGT1BP1
GH10J050549 Enhancer 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 19.8 -580.2 -580169 1.7 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARNT YBX1 ZNF766 CBX5 E2F8 REST ZNF592 SGMS1-AS1 AGAP6 PARG SGMS1 BEND3P1 LINC00843 SHQ1P1 RNU7-107P GC10P050546 GC10M050591
GH10J049537 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 10.6 +431.2 431181 2.5 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK FOXA2 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B ERCC6 PGBD3 AGAP6 LINC00843 WASHC2A PARG RNA5SP317 ENSG00000235939 PIR54050
GH10J049176 Enhancer 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.4 +792.6 792570 1.9 HDGF ATF1 ARNT IRF4 GTF3C2 ZNF766 ZNF143 FOS ATF7 RUNX3 LINC00843 TMEM273 ERCC6 RNA5SP317 PARG RPL21P89 FAM170B
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PARG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PARG gene promoter:
  • FAC1
  • SRY
  • Pax-2
  • E47
  • Pax-2a
  • FOXC1
  • YY1
  • Cart-1

Genomic Locations for PARG Gene

Genomic Locations for PARG Gene
chr10:49,818,275-49,970,203
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
151,929 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr10:51,026,325-51,371,331
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
345,007 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for PARG Gene

Genes around PARG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PARG Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PARG Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PARG Gene

Proteins for PARG Gene

  • Protein details for PARG Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q86W56-PARG_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase
    Protein Accession:
    Q86W56
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A5YBK3
    • B2RC24
    • B4DIU5
    • B4DYR4
    • I6RUV3
    • Q6E4P6
    • Q6E4P7
    • Q7Z742
    • Q9Y4W7

    Protein attributes for PARG Gene

    Size:
    976 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    111110 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with PCNA (PubMed:21398629). Interacts with NUDT5 (PubMed:27257257).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PARG Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PARG Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PARG Gene

Post-translational modifications for PARG Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PARG Gene

Domains & Families for PARG Gene

Gene Families for PARG Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for PARG Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q86W56

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PARG_HUMAN :
  • The PIP-box mediates interaction with PCNA and localization to replication foci.
  • Belongs to the poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase family.
Domain:
  • The PIP-box mediates interaction with PCNA and localization to replication foci.
Family:
  • Belongs to the poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PARG: view

Function for PARG Gene

Molecular function for PARG Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized after DNA damage is only present transiently and is rapidly degraded by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PubMed:23102699). PARG acts both as an endo- and exoglycosidase, releasing PAR of different length as well as ADP-ribose monomers (PubMed:23102699). Required for retinoid acid-dependent gene transactivation, probably by dePARsylating histone demethylase KDM4D, allowing chromatin derepression at RAR-dependent gene promoters (PubMed:23102699). Involved in the synthesis of ATP in the nucleus, together with PARP1, NMNAT1 and NUDT5 (PubMed:27257257). Nuclear ATP generation is required for extensive chromatin remodeling events that are energy-consuming (PubMed:27257257).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Hydrolyzes poly(ADP-D-ribose) at glycosidic (1-2) linkage of ribose-ribose bond to produce free ADP-D-ribose.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
poly ADP-ribose glycohydrolase,responsible for rapid turnover for ADP-ribose polymer,immediately induced by DNA damage

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PARG Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PARG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004649 poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 27257257
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARG: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PARG: view

Animal Models for PARG Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PARG:
  • Parg Parg<tm1Zqw>
  • Parg Parg<tm1Tmd>
  • Parg Parg<tm2b(KOMP)Mbp>

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PARG

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PARG

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PARG Gene

Localization for PARG Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARG Gene

Isoform 1: Nucleus. Note=Colocalizes with PCNA at replication foci. Relocalizes to the cytoplasm in response to DNA damage.
Isoform 2: Cytoplasm. Note=Translocates to the nucleus in response to DNA damage.
Isoform 3: Cytoplasm.
Isoform 4: Cytoplasm. Mitochondrion.
Isoform 5: Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PARG gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 1
cytoskeleton 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Nucleus (4)
  • Vesicles (4)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PARG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 9074616
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm TAS 9925755
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARG: view

Pathways & Interactions for PARG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PARG: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PARG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006282 regulation of DNA repair IBA --
GO:0009225 nucleotide-sugar metabolic process IBA --
GO:0031056 regulation of histone modification IBA --
GO:1990966 ATP generation from poly-ADP-D-ribose IDA 27257257
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PARG: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PARG Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PARG Gene

(1) Drugs for PARG Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(5) Additional Compounds for PARG Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine 5'-diphosphate
  • ADENOSINE-5'-diphosphATE
  • H3ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist, Partial agonist, Antagonist, Gating inhibitor 58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PARG: view

Transcripts for PARG Gene

Unigene Clusters for PARG Gene

Poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PARG

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PARG Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PARG Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PARG
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
PARG

Expression for PARG Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PARG Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PARG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Breast (67.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PARG Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PARG Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PARG Gene:

PARG

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PARG Gene:

Hs.535298

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PARG Gene:

Q86W56-PARG_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously expressed.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PARG Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Blood(4.3)
  • Liver(4.3)
  • Skin(4)
  • Muscle(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PARG: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PARG Gene

Orthologs for PARG Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PARG Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 96 (a)
OneToMany
-- 34
  • 83 (a)
OneToMany
-- 34
  • 82 (a)
OneToMany
-- 34
  • 18 (a)
OneToMany
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PARG 34
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PARG 34 33
  • 91.82 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PARG 34 33
  • 90.67 (n)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Parg 16 34 33
  • 88.19 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Parg 33
  • 86.55 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PARG 34
  • 45 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PARG 34 33
  • 69.75 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PARG 34
  • 42 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia parg 33
  • 62.53 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.9949 33
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii PARG 34
  • 46 (a)
OneToOne
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.9979 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Parg 34 35 33
  • 50.07 (n)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP000589 33
  • 47.16 (n)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pme-4 34 35
  • 27 (a)
OneToMany
pme-3 34
  • 16 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 52 (a)
OneToOne
Cin.240 33
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.240 33
Species where no ortholog for PARG was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PARG Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PARG (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PARG (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PARG: view image

Paralogs for PARG Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for PARG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PARG: view

No data available for Paralogs for PARG Gene

Variants for PARG Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PARG Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 10 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000086998 -- 49,835,923(-) C/A genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000292112 -- 49,820,733(-) /G genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000714436 -- 49,841,660(-) A/G genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000844558 -- 49,822,464(-) T/C genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000896909 -- 49,822,879(-) C/T genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PARG Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv23381 CNV loss 19812545
esv3623178 CNV gain 21293372
esv3623180 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1042677 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1069481 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv442181 CNV gain 18776908
nsv514557 CNV gain 21397061
nsv519934 CNV loss 19592680
nsv8640 CNV gain+loss 18304495
nsv8641 CNV gain 18304495
nsv947982 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv947983 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv947984 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv947985 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv947986 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for PARG Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 2.01; 36.99% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PARG Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PARG

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PARG Gene

Disorders for PARG Gene

Additional Disease Information for PARG

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for PARG Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PARG Gene

Publications for PARG Gene

  1. Assignment of the poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase gene (PARG) to human chromosome 10q11.23 and mouse chromosome 14B by in situ hybridization. (PMID: 10449915) Amé JC … Jacobson MK (Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1999) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Two small enzyme isoforms mediate mammalian mitochondrial poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) activity. (PMID: 17509564) Meyer RG … Jacobson MK (Experimental cell research 2007) 3 4 22 58
  3. Human poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase is expressed in alternative splice variants yielding isoforms that localize to different cell compartments. (PMID: 15212953) Meyer-Ficca ML … Jacobson MK (Experimental cell research 2004) 3 4 22 58
  4. Human poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) gene and the common promoter sequence it shares with inner mitochondrial membrane translocase 23 (TIM23). (PMID: 14527731) Meyer RG … Jacobson MK (Gene 2003) 3 4 22 58
  5. ADP-ribose-derived nuclear ATP synthesis by NUDIX5 is required for chromatin remodeling. (PMID: 27257257) Wright RH … Beato M (Science (New York, N.Y.) 2016) 3 4 58

Products for PARG Gene

Sources for PARG Gene

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