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Aliases for PAPOLG Gene

Aliases for PAPOLG Gene

  • Poly(A) Polymerase Gamma 2 3 3 5
  • Signal Recognition Particle RNA-Adenylating Enzyme 3 4
  • Polynucleotide Adenylyltransferase Gamma 3 4
  • SRP RNA 3-Adenylating Enzyme 3 4
  • SRP RNA-Adenylating Enzyme 3 4
  • Neo-Poly(A) Polymerase 3 4
  • PAP-Gamma 3 4
  • Neo-PAP 3 4
  • SRP RNA 3 Adenylating Enzyme/Pap2 3
  • Nuclear Poly(A) Polymerase Gamma 3
  • EC 4
  • PAP2 4
  • PAPG 4

External Ids for PAPOLG Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PAPOLG Gene

  • GC02P061111
  • GC02P060941
  • GC02P060957
  • GC02P060895
  • GC02P060836
  • GC02P060983
  • GC02P060725

Summaries for PAPOLG Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PAPOLG Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the poly(A) polymerase family which catalyzes template-independent extension of the 3' end of a DNA/RNA strand. This enzyme shares 60% identity to the well characterized poly(A) polymerase II (PAPII) at the amino acid level. These two enzymes have similar organization of structural and functional domains. This enzyme is exclusively localized in the nucleus and exhibits both nonspecific and CPSF (cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor)/AAUAAA-dependent polyadenylation activity. This gene is located on chromosome 2 in contrast to the PAPII gene, which is located on chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PAPOLG Gene

PAPOLG (Poly(A) Polymerase Gamma) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PAPOLG include Chromosome 2P16.1-P15 Deletion Syndrome and Acute Cystitis. Among its related pathways are mRNA surveillance pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include RNA binding and polynucleotide adenylyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PAPOLA.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PAPOLG Gene

  • Responsible for the post-transcriptional adenylation of the 3-terminal of mRNA precursors and several small RNAs including signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA, nuclear 7SK RNA, U2 small nuclear RNA, and ribosomal 5S RNA.

Gene Wiki entry for PAPOLG Gene

Additional gene information for PAPOLG Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PAPOLG Gene

Genomics for PAPOLG Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PAPOLG Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PAPOLG Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH02J060755 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 656.1 +0.6 596 2.5 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 FOXA2 MLX SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 POLR2B PAPOLG AHSA2P GC02M060804
GH02J061015 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 48.8 +261.7 261668 4.4 MLX FEZF1 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 PUS10 PEX13 AHSA2P PAPOLG ENSG00000236498 USP34 CCT4 ENSG00000232713 XPO1 NONOP2
GH02J061534 Promoter/Enhancer 2.6 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 18.9 +781.2 781160 5.2 CLOCK MLX DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC SSRP1 XPO1 CCT4 USP34 REL ENSG00000232713 AHSA2P LOC339803 NONOP2 PAPOLG ENSG00000236498
GH02J061065 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 18.5 +310.0 309971 2 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF143 FOS SP3 NFYC MXD4 SREBF1 RFX3 KIAA1841 XPO1 PAPOLG CCT4 ENSG00000273302 AHSA2P USP34 PEX13 ENSG00000274769
GH02J060543 Promoter/Enhancer 3.1 UCNEbase EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.5 -205.5 -205477 14.4 PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF2 YY1 GLIS2 ZNF213 ZNF143 ZFP91 BCL11A REL ENSG00000232713 NONOP2 PAPOLG ENSG00000233953 AHSA2P PUS10 MIR4432HG RNU1-32P
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PAPOLG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PAPOLG gene promoter:
  • E2F-5
  • c-Ets-1
  • E2F
  • E2F-1
  • E2F-2
  • E2F-4

Genomic Locations for PAPOLG Gene

Genomic Locations for PAPOLG Gene
45,857 bases
Plus strand
45,857 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PAPOLG Gene

Genes around PAPOLG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PAPOLG Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PAPOLG Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PAPOLG Gene

Proteins for PAPOLG Gene

  • Protein details for PAPOLG Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Poly(A) polymerase gamma
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RBH4
    • Q59G05
    • Q969N1
    • Q9H8L2
    • Q9HAD0

    Protein attributes for PAPOLG Gene

    736 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    82803 Da
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420; Name=Mn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29035;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=BAB14604.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PAPOLG Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PAPOLG Gene


neXtProt entry for PAPOLG Gene

Post-translational modifications for PAPOLG Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PAPOLG Gene

Domains & Families for PAPOLG Gene

Gene Families for PAPOLG Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PAPOLG Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the poly(A) polymerase family.
  • Belongs to the poly(A) polymerase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PAPOLG: view

Function for PAPOLG Gene

Molecular function for PAPOLG Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Responsible for the post-transcriptional adenylation of the 3-terminal of mRNA precursors and several small RNAs including signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA, nuclear 7SK RNA, U2 small nuclear RNA, and ribosomal 5S RNA.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + RNA(n) = diphosphate + RNA(n+1).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=0.051 uM for poly(A)(15) {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11431479};

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PAPOLG Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PAPOLG Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PAPOLG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003723 RNA binding IEA --
GO:0004652 polynucleotide adenylyltransferase activity IEA,IDA 11463842
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0016779 nucleotidyltransferase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PAPOLG: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PAPOLG: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PAPOLG

miRNA for PAPOLG Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PAPOLG

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PAPOLG Gene

Localization for PAPOLG Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PAPOLG Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PAPOLG gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PAPOLG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 11463842
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IDA --
GO:0016020 membrane HDA 19946888
GO:0016604 nuclear body IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PAPOLG: view

Pathways & Interactions for PAPOLG Gene

SuperPathways for PAPOLG Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 mRNA surveillance pathway
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PAPOLG: view

Pathways by source for PAPOLG Gene

1 KEGG pathway for PAPOLG Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PAPOLG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006378 mRNA polyadenylation IBA --
GO:0006397 mRNA processing IEA --
GO:0031123 RNA 3-end processing IEA --
GO:0043631 RNA polyadenylation IDA,IEA 11287430
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PAPOLG: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PAPOLG Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PAPOLG Gene

(2) Drugs for PAPOLG Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist, Activator, Full agonist, Antagonist, Potentiation, Pore Blocker 0

(1) Additional Compounds for PAPOLG Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • [(ho)2P(O)OP(O)(OH)2]
  • Acide diphosphorique
  • Diphosphorsaeure
  • H4P2O7
  • PYROphosphATE
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PAPOLG: view

Transcripts for PAPOLG Gene

Unigene Clusters for PAPOLG Gene

Poly(A) polymerase gamma:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PAPOLG Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18a ·
SP1: - -
SP3: - -
SP4: -
SP6: - -

ExUns: 18b ^ 19 ^ 20a · 20b

Relevant External Links for PAPOLG Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PAPOLG Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PAPOLG Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PAPOLG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreatic juice (40.1), Adipocyte (10.8), and Testis (8.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PAPOLG Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PAPOLG Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PAPOLG Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PAPOLG Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PAPOLG Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed predominantly in testis, and weakly in other tissues. Overexpressed in several tumors.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PAPOLG Gene

  • Nervous system(4.5)
  • Blood(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PAPOLG: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PAPOLG Gene

Orthologs for PAPOLG Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for PAPOLG Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PAPOLG 34 33
  • 99.77 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PAPOLG 34 33
  • 93.86 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PAPOLG 34 33
  • 93.2 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Papolg 16 34 33
  • 91.64 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Papolg 33
  • 89.96 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PAPOLG 34
  • 86 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PAPOLG 34
  • 84 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PAPOLG 34 33
  • 73.48 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 63 (a)
-- 34
  • 56 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia papolg 33
  • 72.47 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii papolg 34 33
  • 70.17 (n)
zgc63762 33
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.6689 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP013207 33
  • 59.37 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta hrg 34 35 33
  • 58.07 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F43G6.5 34
  • 43 (a)
Y32F6A.3 35
  • 43 (a)
T15H9.6 34 35
  • 42 (a)
pap-1 34
  • 38 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes PAP1 36 34 33
  • 54.64 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0B13255g 33
  • 54.22 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ABL002C 33
  • 49.29 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons PAPS1 33
  • 50.57 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os06g0319600 33
  • 52.94 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.2725 34
  • 64 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes pla1 33
  • 53.69 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU08983 33
  • 48.07 (n)
Species where no ortholog for PAPOLG was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PAPOLG Gene

Gene Tree for PAPOLG (if available)
Gene Tree for PAPOLG (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PAPOLG: view image

Paralogs for PAPOLG Gene

Paralogs for PAPOLG Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for PAPOLG Gene using alignment to 8 proteins:

  • H7C3W0_HUMAN
  • Q05DB9_HUMAN
  • Q53T17_HUMAN
  • Q53T81_HUMAN
  • Q59G05_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PAPOLG: view

Variants for PAPOLG Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PAPOLG Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000070533 -- 60,775,721(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1000075799 -- 60,790,140(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000085285 -- 60,781,982(+) T/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1000159110 -- 60,800,617(+) G/C 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000173546 -- 60,777,551(+) A/G intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PAPOLG Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv3859n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv6908n54 CNV gain 21841781
esv3591007 CNV gain 21293372
esv3591008 CNV loss 21293372
nsv834215 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for PAPOLG Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 3.85% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.03; 21.17% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PAPOLG Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PAPOLG Gene

Disorders for PAPOLG Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for PAPOLG Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
chromosome 2p16.1-p15 deletion syndrome
  • 2p15-p16.1 microdeletion syndrome
acute cystitis
  • urinary tract infection
bladder disease
  • urinary bladder disease
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for PAPOLG

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PAPOLG: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PAPOLG Gene

Publications for PAPOLG Gene

  1. A novel nuclear human poly(A) polymerase (PAP), PAP gamma. (PMID: 11431479) Kyriakopoulou CB … Virtanen A (The Journal of biological chemistry 2001) 3 4 22 58
  2. Crystal structure of human poly(A) polymerase gamma reveals a conserved catalytic core for canonical poly(A) polymerases. (PMID: 24076191) Yang Q … Doublié S (Journal of molecular biology 2014) 3 4 58
  3. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T … Sugano S (Nature genetics 2004) 3 4 58
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  5. Identification and functional characterization of neo-poly(A) polymerase, an RNA processing enzyme overexpressed in human tumors. (PMID: 11463842) Topalian SL … Manley JL (Molecular and cellular biology 2001) 3 4 58

Products for PAPOLG Gene

Sources for PAPOLG Gene

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