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Aliases for PAPOLA Gene

Aliases for PAPOLA Gene

  • Poly(A) Polymerase Alpha 2 3 3 5
  • Polynucleotide Adenylyltransferase Alpha 3 4
  • PAP-Alpha 3 4
  • PAP 3 4
  • EC 4

External Ids for PAPOLA Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PAPOLA Gene

  • GC14P094479
  • GC14P090785
  • GC14P094958
  • GC14P096038
  • GC14P096969
  • GC14P077153

Summaries for PAPOLA Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PAPOLA Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the poly(A) polymerase family. It is required for the addition of adenosine residues for the creation of the 3'-poly(A) tail of mRNAs. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PAPOLA Gene

PAPOLA (Poly(A) Polymerase Alpha) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Processing of Capped Intronless Pre-mRNA and mRNA Splicing - Major Pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include RNA binding and manganese ion binding. An important paralog of this gene is PAPOLB.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PAPOLA Gene

  • Polymerase that creates the 3-poly(A) tail of mRNAs. Also required for the endoribonucleolytic cleavage reaction at some polyadenylation sites. May acquire specificity through interaction with a cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) at its C-terminus.

Gene Wiki entry for PAPOLA Gene

Additional gene information for PAPOLA Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PAPOLA Gene

Genomics for PAPOLA Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PAPOLA Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PAPOLA Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH14J096500 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 679.1 +1.2 1235 3.4 PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B YY1 POLR2B ZNF213 PAPOLA LOC730202 GC14M096501 SCARNA13 SNHG10 ATG2B ENSG00000276182
GH14J096100 Enhancer 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 39 -397.2 -397196 7.3 FOXA2 NEUROD1 SIN3A ZNF2 YY1 ZNF143 ATF7 FOS RUNX3 ZNF263 PAPOLA SCARNA13 DICER1 SNHG10 BDKRB2 ATG2B C14orf132 BDKRB1
GH14J095530 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 20.2 -966.6 -966558 8.8 CLOCK MLX DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC GLRX5 SCARNA13 SNHG10 GC14M095534 GC14M095530 SYNE3 PAPOLA LOC101929107 DICER1
GH14J096101 Enhancer 1 ENCODE dbSUPER 39 -401.1 -401068 0.4 PKNOX1 CLOCK NFXL1 BMI1 ZNF2 RAD21 THAP11 ZNF263 HCFC1 NCOA1 PAPOLA SCARNA13 DICER1 SNHG10 BDKRB2 ATG2B C14orf132
GH14J096203 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 13.8 -296.0 -296015 3.7 PKNOX1 SIN3A FEZF1 GLIS2 FOS ATF7 REST NFIL3 GLIS1 WT1 BDKRB2 ENSG00000258691 BDKRB1 PAPOLA SCARNA13 SNHG10 ENSG00000258412
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PAPOLA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PAPOLA gene promoter:
  • AML1a
  • Arnt
  • AhR
  • Sox5
  • Egr-2
  • MRF-2
  • FOXO4
  • AP-1
  • c-Fos
  • c-Jun

Genomic Locations for PAPOLA Gene

Genomic Locations for PAPOLA Gene
65,684 bases
Plus strand
65,679 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PAPOLA Gene

Genes around PAPOLA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PAPOLA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PAPOLA Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PAPOLA Gene

Proteins for PAPOLA Gene

  • Protein details for PAPOLA Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Poly(A) polymerase alpha
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q86SX4
    • Q86TV0
    • Q8IYF5
    • Q9BVU2

    Protein attributes for PAPOLA Gene

    745 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    82843 Da
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420; Name=Mn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29035;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer. Found in a complex with CPSF1, FIP1L1 and PAPOLA. Interacts with AHCYL1 and FIP1L1; the interaction with AHCYL1 seems to increase interaction with FIP1L1 (PubMed:19224921). Interacts with NUDT21; the interaction is diminished by acetylation. Interacts with KPNB1; the interaction promotes PAP nuclear import and is inhibited by acetylation of PAP (By similarity).

    Alternative splice isoforms for PAPOLA Gene


neXtProt entry for PAPOLA Gene

Post-translational modifications for PAPOLA Gene

  • Polysumoylated. Varying sumolyation depending on tissue- and cell-type. Highly sumoylated in bladder and NIH 3T3 cells. Sumoylation is required for nuclear localization and enhances PAP stability. Desumoylated by SENP1. Inhibits polymerase activity (By similarity).
  • Hyperphosphorylation on multiple CDK2 consensus and non-consensus sites in the C-terminal Ser/Thr-rich region represses PAP activity in late M-phase. Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation may regulate the interaction between PAP and CPSF (By similarity).
  • Acetylated in the C-terminus. Acetylation decreases interaction with NUDT21 and KPNB1, and inhibits nuclear localization through inhibiting binding to the importin alpha/beta complex (By similarity).
  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=360 and isoforms=267
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PAPOLA Gene

Domains & Families for PAPOLA Gene

Gene Families for PAPOLA Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PAPOLA Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the poly(A) polymerase family.
  • Belongs to the poly(A) polymerase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PAPOLA: view

Function for PAPOLA Gene

Molecular function for PAPOLA Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Polymerase that creates the 3-poly(A) tail of mRNAs. Also required for the endoribonucleolytic cleavage reaction at some polyadenylation sites. May acquire specificity through interaction with a cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) at its C-terminus.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + RNA(n) = diphosphate + RNA(n+1).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PAPOLA Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PAPOLA Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PAPOLA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding ISS --
GO:0003723 RNA binding IEA --
GO:0004652 polynucleotide adenylyltransferase activity IEA,TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 7590244
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA,ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PAPOLA: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PAPOLA: view

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PAPOLA Gene

Localization for PAPOLA Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PAPOLA Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=The 90 kDa form is nuclear while the 100 kDa and the 106 kDa forms are both nuclear and cytoplasmic.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PAPOLA gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PAPOLA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus TAS,IEA 8302877
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA,TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm TAS 8302877
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PAPOLA: view

Pathways & Interactions for PAPOLA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PAPOLA: view

Pathways by source for PAPOLA Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for PAPOLA Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PAPOLA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000398 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome TAS --
GO:0006369 termination of RNA polymerase II transcription TAS --
GO:0006378 mRNA polyadenylation IDA 7590244
GO:0006397 mRNA processing IEA --
GO:0031123 RNA 3-end processing IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PAPOLA: view

Drugs & Compounds for PAPOLA Gene

(5) Drugs for PAPOLA Gene - From: DrugBank and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
3-Sulfinoalanine Experimental Pharma Target 0
Cordycepin Triphosphate Experimental Pharma Target 0
PPPi Experimental Pharma Target 0
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist, Activator, Full agonist, Antagonist, Potentiation, Pore Blocker 0

(2) Additional Compounds for PAPOLA Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • [(ho)2P(O)OP(O)(OH)2]
  • Acide diphosphorique
  • Diphosphorsaeure
  • H4P2O7
  • PYROphosphATE
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PAPOLA: view

Transcripts for PAPOLA Gene

Unigene Clusters for PAPOLA Gene

Poly(A) polymerase alpha:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PAPOLA Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d · 7e ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c · 9d · 9e ^ 10 ^ 11a ·
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - -
SP6: - - - -
SP7: -
SP8: - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - - - -
SP10: - - -
SP13: - - - - -

ExUns: 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22a · 22b · 22c ^ 23a · 23b ^ 24a · 24b ^ 25a · 25b · 25c ·
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - -
SP4: - -
SP5: - -
SP12: -
SP14: - - - -
SP15: - - -
SP16: -
SP17: - - -
SP18: -

ExUns: 25d · 25e

Relevant External Links for PAPOLA Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PAPOLA Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PAPOLA Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PAPOLA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (16.0), Testis (9.4), and Lymph node (8.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PAPOLA Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PAPOLA Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PAPOLA Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PAPOLA Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PAPOLA Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Liver(4.4)
  • Eye(2.4)
  • Intestine(2.2)
  • Spleen(2.2)
  • Heart(2.1)
  • Lung(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PAPOLA: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PAPOLA Gene

Orthologs for PAPOLA Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for PAPOLA Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PAPOLA 34 33
  • 99.96 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PAPOLA 34 33
  • 97.56 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 97 (a)
-- 34
  • 87 (a)
-- 34
  • 80 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 97 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PAPOLA 34 33
  • 96.89 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Papola 16 34 33
  • 93.82 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Papola 33
  • 93.46 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PAPOLA 34 33
  • 88.5 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 90 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia papola 33
  • 78.73 (n)
Str.10813 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC68746 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii papola 34 33
  • 68.38 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.5723 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta hrg 34
  • 50 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea T15H9.6 34 33
  • 57.55 (n)
F43G6.5 34
  • 47 (a)
pap-1 34
  • 41 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes PAP1 34
  • 38 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons nPAP 33
  • 50.8 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os06g0558700 33
  • 52.14 (n)
Os.32564 33
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.2725 34
  • 64 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PAPOLA was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PAPOLA Gene

Gene Tree for PAPOLA (if available)
Gene Tree for PAPOLA (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PAPOLA: view image

Paralogs for PAPOLA Gene

Paralogs for PAPOLA Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for PAPOLA Gene using alignment to 9 proteins:

  • G3V2A0_HUMAN
  • G3V3I9_HUMAN
  • G3V457_HUMAN
  • H0YJ00_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PAPOLA: view

Variants for PAPOLA Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PAPOLA Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 14 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs483352759 conflicting-interpretations-of-pathogenicity, not provided 96,547,861(+) A/G coding_sequence_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, synonymous_variant
rs1000018300 -- 96,564,154(+) A/G genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000023635 -- 96,536,365(+) C/T genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000051911 -- 96,518,288(+) A/G intron_variant
rs1000124762 -- 96,556,709(+) C/T genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PAPOLA Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1964n100 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1052499 CNV loss 25217958
nsv977501 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for PAPOLA Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 13.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.71; 15.05% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PAPOLA Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PAPOLA Gene

Disorders for PAPOLA Gene

Additional Disease Information for PAPOLA

No disorders were found for PAPOLA Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PAPOLA Gene

Publications for PAPOLA Gene

  1. Multiple forms of poly(A) polymerases in human cells. (PMID: 8302877) Thuresson AC … Virtanen A (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1994) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor-binding protein released with inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IRBIT) associates with components of the mRNA 3' processing machinery in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and inhibits polyadenylation. (PMID: 19224921) Kiefer H … Mikoshiba K (The Journal of biological chemistry 2009) 3 4 22 58
  3. Human Fip1 is a subunit of CPSF that binds to U-rich RNA elements and stimulates poly(A) polymerase. (PMID: 14749727) Kaufmann I … Keller W (The EMBO journal 2004) 3 4 22 58
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  5. Distinct sequence motifs within the 68-kDa subunit of cleavage factor Im mediate RNA binding, protein-protein interactions, and subcellular localization. (PMID: 15169763) Dettwiler S … Barabino SM (The Journal of biological chemistry 2004) 3 4 58

Products for PAPOLA Gene

Sources for PAPOLA Gene

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