This gene encodes a member of the paralemmin protein family. The product of this gene is a prenylated and palmitoylated phosphoprotein that associates with the cytoplasmic face of plasma membranes and is implicated in plasma membrane dynamics in neurons and other cell types. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified, but the full-length nature of on... See more...

Aliases for PALM Gene

Aliases for PALM Gene

  • Paralemmin 2 3 4 5
  • Paralemmin-1 3 4
  • KIAA0270 4
  • PALM1 3

External Ids for PALM Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PALM Gene

  • GC19P000760
  • GC19P000648
  • GC19P000660
  • GC19P000659
  • GC19P000489

Summaries for PALM Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PALM Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the paralemmin protein family. The product of this gene is a prenylated and palmitoylated phosphoprotein that associates with the cytoplasmic face of plasma membranes and is implicated in plasma membrane dynamics in neurons and other cell types. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified, but the full-length nature of only two transcript variants has been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PALM Gene

PALM (Paralemmin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PALM include Waardenburg Syndrome, Type 2B and Pettigrew Syndrome. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include D3 dopamine receptor binding. An important paralog of this gene is PALMD.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PALM Gene

  • Involved in plasma membrane dynamics and cell process formation. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are necessary for axonal and dendritic filopodia induction, for dendritic spine maturation and synapse formation in a palmitoylation-dependent manner.

Gene Wiki entry for PALM Gene

Additional gene information for PALM Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for PALM Gene

Genomics for PALM Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PALM Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PALM Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PALM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PALM

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PALM gene promoter:
  • ATF
  • HEN1
  • Lmo2
  • MAZR
  • STAT3
  • USF-1
  • USF-1:USF-2
  • USF1
  • USF2

Genomic Locations for PALM Gene

Genomic Locations for PALM Gene
chr19:708,935-748,330
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
39,396 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr19:708,953-748,330
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
39,378 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for PALM Gene

Genes around PALM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PALM Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PALM Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PALM Gene

Proteins for PALM Gene

  • Protein details for PALM Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O75781-PALM_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Paralemmin-1
    Protein Accession:
    O75781
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O43359
    • O95673
    • Q92559
    • Q9UPJ4
    • Q9UQS2
    • Q9UQS3

    Protein attributes for PALM Gene

    Size:
    387 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    42076 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with dopamine receptor DRD3.

    Alternative splice isoforms for PALM Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for PALM Gene

Post-translational modifications for PALM Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PALM Gene

Domains & Families for PALM Gene

Gene Families for PALM Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for PALM Gene

Blocks:
  • Paralemmin
InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PALM Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • cDNA FLJ52776, highly similar to Paralemmin (B7Z6Y8_HUMAN)
  • Paralemmin (PALM_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O75781

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

PALM_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the paralemmin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the paralemmin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PALM: view

Function for PALM Gene

Molecular function for PALM Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Involved in plasma membrane dynamics and cell process formation. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are necessary for axonal and dendritic filopodia induction, for dendritic spine maturation and synapse formation in a palmitoylation-dependent manner.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
paralemmin,constituent of brain synaptic plasma membranes,also expressed in the kidney,adrenal medulla and at low level in many tissues

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PALM Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PALM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16386234
GO:0031750 D3 dopamine receptor binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PALM: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PALM: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PALM Gene

Localization for PALM Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PALM Gene

Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side. Cell projection, filopodium membrane; Lipid-anchor. Cell projection, axon. Cell projection, dendrite. Cell projection, dendritic spine. Basolateral cell membrane; Lipid-anchor. Apicolateral cell membrane; Lipid-anchor. Note=Translocation to the plasma membrane is enhanced upon stimulation of neuronal activity.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PALM gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 3
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Nucleoplasm (4)
  • Plasma membrane (4)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PALM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA 16386234
GO:0014069 postsynaptic density IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PALM: view

Pathways & Interactions for PALM Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for PALM Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PALM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007010 cytoskeleton organization IEA --
GO:0007193 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007194 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity IBA 21873635
GO:0008104 protein localization IEA --
GO:0008360 regulation of cell shape IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PALM: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for PALM Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PALM Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for PALM Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PALM Gene

2 REFSEQ mRNAs :
14 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
11 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PALM Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b · 12c · 12d
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: -
SP4: -
SP5:
SP6:
SP7: - -

Relevant External Links for PALM Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
PALM

Expression for PALM Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PALM Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PALM Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (32.9) and Frontal cortex (11.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PALM Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for PALM Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for PALM

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PALM Gene:

Hs.631841

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PALM Gene:

O75781-PALM_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Widely expressed with highest expression in brain and testis and intermediate expression in heart and adrenal gland.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PALM Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Blood(4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PALM: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PALM Gene

Orthologs for PALM Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PALM Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PALM 31 30
  • 97.14 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PALM 31 30
  • 85.15 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PALM 31 30
  • 83.9 (n)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Palm 17 31 30
  • 80.16 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Palm 30
  • 79.37 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PALM 31
  • 69 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PALM 31
  • 65 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PALM 31 30
  • 70.79 (n)
OneToMany
-- 31
  • 61 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PALM 31
  • 64 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia palm 30
  • 59.63 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii palm1a 31 30
  • 66.67 (n)
OneToMany
palm1b 31
  • 51 (a)
OneToMany
zgc63523 30
Species where no ortholog for PALM was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PALM Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for PALM (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for PALM (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PALM: view image

Paralogs for PALM Gene

Paralogs for PALM Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for PALM Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • PALM_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PALM: view

Variants for PALM Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for PALM Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 19 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs201995410 Uncertain Significance: atypical cerebral palsy 727,021(+) G/A MISSENSE_VARIANT
rs772962279 Uncertain Significance: atypical cerebral palsy 736,037(+) C/T MISSENSE_VARIANT
rs1050457 - p.Thr107Ala

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for PALM Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PALM Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv134n111 CNV deletion 26073780
dgv1677n106 CNV deletion 24896259
dgv485e201 CNV deletion 23290073
esv1010920 CNV deletion 20482838
esv1111384 CNV insertion 17803354
esv2717771 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717772 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717774 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717775 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717776 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717777 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717778 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717779 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717780 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3643362 CNV loss 21293372
esv3643363 CNV gain 21293372
esv3643364 CNV gain 21293372
esv3643365 CNV loss 21293372
esv3643366 CNV gain 21293372
esv3643368 CNV gain 21293372
esv3893155 CNV gain 25118596
nsv1071883 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1072832 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1121960 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1142248 CNV tandem duplication 24896259
nsv458320 CNV loss 19166990
nsv470101 CNV loss 18288195
nsv577978 CNV gain 21841781
nsv578165 CNV loss 21841781
nsv578166 CNV loss 21841781
nsv953938 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for PALM Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 69% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.66; 31.75% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PALM Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
PALM

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PALM Gene

Disorders for PALM Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(8) MalaCards diseases for PALM Gene - From: DISEASES

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PALM in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PALM

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PALM: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PALM Gene

Publications for PALM Gene

  1. Paralemmin, a prenyl-palmitoyl-anchored phosphoprotein abundant in neurons and implicated in plasma membrane dynamics and cell process formation. (PMID: 9813098) Kutzleb C … Kilimann MW (The Journal of cell biology 1998) 2 3 4 23 54
  2. Structure of the human paralemmin gene (PALM), mapping to human chromosome 19p13.3 and mouse chromosome 10, and exclusion of coding mutations in grizzled, mocha, jittery, and hesitant mice. (PMID: 9615234) Burwinkel B … Kilimann MW (Genomics 1998) 2 3 4 23 54
  3. Paralemmin interacts with D3 dopamine receptors: implications for membrane localization and cAMP signaling. (PMID: 16386234) Basile M … Kester M (Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2006) 3 4 23 54
  4. Regulation of dendritic branching and filopodia formation in hippocampal neurons by specific acylated protein motifs. (PMID: 14978216) Gauthier-Campbell C … El-Husseini Ael-D (Molecular biology of the cell 2004) 3 4 23 54
  5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 54

Products for PALM Gene

Sources for PALM Gene