Aliases for PAK1 Gene
External Ids for PAK1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PAK1 Gene
This gene encodes a family member of serine/threonine p21-activating kinases, known as PAK proteins. These proteins are critical effectors that link RhoGTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling, and they serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac. This specific family member regulates cell motility and morphology. Mutations in this gene have been associated with macrocephaly, seizures, and speech delay. Overexpression of this gene is also reported in many cancer types, and particularly in breast cancer. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2020]
GeneCards Summary for PAK1 Gene
PAK1 (P21 (RAC1) Activated Kinase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PAK1 include Intellectual Developmental Disorder With Macrocephaly, Seizures, And Speech Delay and Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma. Among its related pathways are Immune response IL-23 signaling pathway and Insulin receptor recycling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PAK3.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for PAK1 Gene
Protein kinase involved in intracellular signaling pathways downstream of integrins and receptor-type kinases that plays an important role in cytoskeleton dynamics, in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, apoptosis, mitosis, and in vesicle-mediated transport processes (PubMed:30290153). Can directly phosphorylate BAD and protects cells against apoptosis. Activated by interaction with CDC42 and RAC1. Functions as GTPase effector that links the Rho-related GTPases CDC42 and RAC1 to the JNK MAP kinase pathway. Phosphorylates and activates MAP2K1, and thereby mediates activation of downstream MAP kinases. Involved in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, actin stress fibers and of focal adhesion complexes. Phosphorylates the tubulin chaperone TBCB and thereby plays a role in the regulation of microtubule biogenesis and organization of the tubulin cytoskeleton. Plays a role in the regulation of insulin secretion in response to elevated glucose levels. Part of a ternary complex that contains PAK1, DVL1 and MUSK that is important for MUSK-dependent regulation of AChR clustering during the formation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Activity is inhibited in cells undergoing apoptosis, potentially due to binding of CDC2L1 and CDC2L2. Phosphorylates MYL9/MLC2. Phosphorylates RAF1 at 'Ser-338' and 'Ser-339' resulting in: activation of RAF1, stimulation of RAF1 translocation to mitochondria, phosphorylation of BAD by RAF1, and RAF1 binding to BCL2. Phosphorylates SNAI1 at 'Ser-246' promoting its transcriptional repressor activity by increasing its accumulation in the nucleus. In podocytes, promotes NR3C2 nuclear localization. Required for atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2-induced phosphorylation of LIMK1 and cofilin (CFL1) and for the up-regulation of ACKR2 from endosomal compartment to cell membrane, increasing its efficiency in chemokine uptake and degradation. In synapses, seems to mediate the regulation of F-actin cluster formation performed by SHANK3, maybe through CFL1 phosphorylation and inactivation. Plays a role in RUFY3-mediated facilitating gastric cancer cells migration and invasion (PubMed:25766321). In response to DNA damage, phosphorylates MORC2 which activates its ATPase activity and facilitates chromatin remodeling (PubMed:23260667).
P21-activated kinases (PAKs), EC 220.127.116.11, are serine/threonine kinases that are effector proteins for the Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac. Six PAK isoforms have been identified to date, which can be split into group A (PAK1, PAK2, PAK3) and group B (PAK4, PAK5, PAK6).