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Aliases for PACRG Gene

Aliases for PACRG Gene

  • Parkin Coregulated 2 3 5
  • Molecular Chaperone/Chaperonin-Binding Protein 3 4
  • PARK2 Coregulated 2 3
  • GLUP 3 4
  • Parkin Co-Regulated Gene Protein 3
  • Parkin Coregulated Gene Protein 3
  • PARK2 Coregulated Gene Protein 4
  • PARK2 Co-Regulated 3
  • HAK005771 3
  • PARK2CRG 3

External Ids for PACRG Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PACRG Gene

  • GC06P162502
  • GC06P163021
  • GC06P163057
  • GC06P163118
  • GC06P160600

Summaries for PACRG Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PACRG Gene

  • This gene encodes a protein that is conserved across metazoans. In vertebrates, this gene is linked in a head-to-head arrangement with the adjacent parkin gene, which is associated with autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson's disease. These genes are co-regulated in various tissues and they share a bi-directional promoter. Both genes are associated with susceptibility to leprosy. The parkin co-regulated gene protein forms a large molecular complex with chaperones, including heat shock proteins 70 and 90, and chaperonin components. This protein is also a component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease patients, and it suppresses unfolded Pael receptor-induced neuronal cell death. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PACRG Gene

PACRG (Parkin Coregulated) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PACRG include Leprosy 3 and Hydrocephalus. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include binding and ubiquitin protein ligase binding. An important paralog of this gene is PACRGL.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PACRG Gene

  • Suppresses cell death induced by accumulation of unfolded Pael receptor (Pael-R, a substrate of Parkin). Facilitates the formation of inclusions consisting of Pael-R, molecular chaperones, protein degradation molecules and itself when proteasome is inhibited. May play an important role in the formation of Lewy bodies and protection of dopaminergic neurons against Parkinson disease.

Gene Wiki entry for PACRG Gene

Additional gene information for PACRG Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PACRG Gene

Genomics for PACRG Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PACRG Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PACRG Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH06J162726 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 676.3 +0.8 831 2.2 FOXA2 ARID4B SIN3A YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B ZNF143 KLF13 SP3 SP5 PACRG PRKN TRE-TTC15-1
GH06J162705 Enhancer 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE 37.4 -20.7 -20720 1.2 POLR2A ZIC2 NR2F2 YY1 PACRG PRKN KRT8P44
GH06J162364 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE 4.6 -362.6 -362551 0.9 TCF12 ZNF766 CAVIN1 ZBTB11 CEBPB ZNF592 SNIP1 ZNF148 MEF2D SMARCA4 PACRG PRKN LOC105369171 LOC105378097
GH06J163160 Enhancer 0.7 dbSUPER 4.9 +439.7 439698 12.3 CTCF USF1 ZMYM3 CEBPG RAD21 YY1 DIDO1 ZNF143 NFE2 NR2F6 PACRG-AS3 QKI PACRG PACRG-AS2
GH06J162538 Enhancer 0.6 ENCODE 5.2 -188.2 -188197 0.6 ZFP69B MXI1 PKNOX1 POLR2A MAFG CBFA2T3 RCOR1 MAFK CHD2 PACRG KRT8P44 LOC105369171 PRKN
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PACRG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PACRG gene promoter:
  • GR
  • GR-alpha

Genomic Locations for PACRG Gene

Genomic Locations for PACRG Gene
588,409 bases
Plus strand
588,361 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PACRG Gene

Genes around PACRG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PACRG Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PACRG Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PACRG Gene

Proteins for PACRG Gene

  • Protein details for PACRG Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Parkin coregulated gene protein
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • E1P5B5
    • Q6IMB8
    • Q8IZM1
    • Q8NHP5
    • Q9H1V9

    Protein attributes for PACRG Gene

    296 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    33342 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Forms a large molecular chaperone complex containing heat shock proteins 70 and 90 and chaperonin components. Interacts with STIP1, PRKN, GPR37, HSPA8, TCP1/CCT1, CCT2, CCT3, CCT4, CCT5, CCT6A, CCT7, CCT8. Interacts with MEIG1 (By similarity).
    • Linked to PRKN in a head-to-head arrangement on opposite DNA strands and share a common 5-flanking promoter region.

    Alternative splice isoforms for PACRG Gene


neXtProt entry for PACRG Gene

Post-translational modifications for PACRG Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PACRG Gene

Domains & Families for PACRG Gene

Gene Families for PACRG Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for PACRG Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PACRG Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PACRG: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PACRG Gene

Function for PACRG Gene

Molecular function for PACRG Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Suppresses cell death induced by accumulation of unfolded Pael receptor (Pael-R, a substrate of Parkin). Facilitates the formation of inclusions consisting of Pael-R, molecular chaperones, protein degradation molecules and itself when proteasome is inhibited. May play an important role in the formation of Lewy bodies and protection of dopaminergic neurons against Parkinson disease.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PACRG Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PACRG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001664 G-protein coupled receptor binding IPI 14532270
GO:0003779 actin binding IDA 14532270
GO:0030544 Hsp70 protein binding IDA 14532270
GO:0031072 heat shock protein binding IPI 14532270
GO:0031625 ubiquitin protein ligase binding IPI 14532270
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PACRG: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PACRG: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for PACRG Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PACRG

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PACRG

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PACRG Gene

Localization for PACRG Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PACRG gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 2
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PACRG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus HDA 21630459
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IDA 14532270
GO:0005929 cilium IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PACRG: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PACRG Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PACRG Gene

SuperPathways for PACRG Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PACRG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007286 spermatid development IEA --
GO:0034620 cellular response to unfolded protein TAS 14532270
GO:0060548 negative regulation of cell death IMP 14532270
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PACRG: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for PACRG Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PACRG Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for PACRG Gene

Unigene Clusters for PACRG Gene

PARK2 co-regulated:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for PACRG

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PACRG Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b
SP1: -
SP2: - -
SP3: -

Relevant External Links for PACRG Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PACRG Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PACRG Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PACRG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x6.3) and Pituitary (x5.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PACRG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PACRG Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PACRG Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PACRG Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PACRG Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PACRG Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in all immune tissues, spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, tonsils, leukocyte and bone marrow. Expressed also in heart, brain, skeletal muscle, kidney, lung and pancreas. Expressed in primary Schwann cells and very weakly by monocyte-derived macrophages the primary host cells of Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy. Component of Lewy bodies, intraneuronal inclusions found in the brain of Parkinson disease patients.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PACRG Gene

  • Liver(2.4)
  • Lung(2.2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PACRG Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • eye
  • eyelid
  • face
  • head
  • urethra
  • urinary bladder
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • spinal cord
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PACRG: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery for PACRG Gene

Orthologs for PACRG Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PACRG Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PACRG 33
  • 99.44 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PACRG 34 33
  • 93.77 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100912128 33
  • 90.66 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pacrg 16 34 33
  • 88.8 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PACRG 34 33
  • 86.03 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PACRG 34
  • 84 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PACRG 34
  • 75 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PACRG 34 33
  • 81.9 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PACRG 34
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100127543 33
  • 80.82 (n)
Str.16455 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii PACRG (2 of 2) 34
  • 91 (a)
pacrg 34 33
  • 76.13 (n)
Dr.9081 33
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.1100 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP011313 33
  • 62.79 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG15120 34 33
  • 61.63 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.4180 34
  • 76 (a)
Cin.10208 33
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.10208 33
Species where no ortholog for PACRG was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PACRG Gene

Gene Tree for PACRG (if available)
Gene Tree for PACRG (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PACRG: view image

Paralogs for PACRG Gene

Paralogs for PACRG Gene

(7) SIMAP similar genes for PACRG Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

  • H0UI29_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PACRG: view

Variants for PACRG Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PACRG Gene

Involved in susceptibility to leprosy (LPRS2) [MIM:607572]. LPRS2 is associated with polymorphisms in the 5-regulatory region shared by the PRKN gene.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PACRG Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs112850281 uncertain-significance, Parkinson Disease, Juvenile 162,727,710(+) A/G genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs200065081 uncertain-significance, Parkinson Disease, Juvenile 162,727,698(+) A/G genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs369389244 uncertain-significance, Parkinson Disease, Juvenile 162,727,714(+) G/A/C genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs397518439 pathogenic, Parkinson disease 2 162,727,661(+) C/A 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs749081702 uncertain-significance, Parkinson Disease, Juvenile 162,727,658(+) G/A/C 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PACRG Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv11022n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv3432n106 CNV tandem duplication 24896259
dgv3433n106 CNV deletion 24896259
dgv6176n100 CNV gain 25217958
esv1009462 CNV insertion 20482838
esv1529490 CNV insertion 17803354
esv1778979 CNV insertion 17803354
esv2657084 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2666520 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2733107 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2733108 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2733109 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2733110 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2733111 CNV deletion 23290073
esv275472 CNV loss 21479260
esv2759489 CNV gain 17122850
esv2762627 CNV loss 21179565
esv2762628 CNV gain 21179565
esv3303354 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3305998 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3348036 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3356099 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3378117 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3418427 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3437189 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3448928 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3540819 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3571505 CNV loss 25503493
esv3611566 CNV loss 21293372
esv3611567 CNV loss 21293372
esv3611568 CNV loss 21293372
esv3611569 CNV loss 21293372
esv3611570 CNV loss 21293372
esv3611571 CNV loss 21293372
esv3611572 CNV loss 21293372
esv3611574 CNV loss 21293372
esv3611575 CNV loss 21293372
esv3890992 CNV loss 25118596
nsv1015507 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1018573 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1021433 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1024624 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1025098 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1026490 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1030116 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1137174 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1139877 CNV duplication 24896259
nsv1145801 CNV insertion 26484159
nsv1146089 CNV duplication 26484159
nsv349311 CNV insertion 16902084
nsv349630 CNV insertion 16902084
nsv464126 CNV loss 19166990
nsv477392 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv509165 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv517562 CNV gain+loss 19592680
nsv520096 CNV loss 19592680
nsv521563 CNV gain 19592680
nsv522316 CNV loss 19592680
nsv605159 CNV loss 21841781
nsv605180 CNV loss 21841781
nsv605181 CNV gain 21841781
nsv605182 CNV gain 21841781
nsv605185 CNV gain 21841781
nsv605186 CNV loss 21841781
nsv605187 CNV loss 21841781
nsv605188 CNV loss 21841781
nsv830857 CNV loss 17160897
nsv970191 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for PACRG Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 42.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.52; 29.56% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PACRG Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

Disorders for PACRG Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for PACRG Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
leprosy 3
  • leprosy, susceptibility to, 3
  • hydrocephalus, nonsyndromic, autosomal recessive
parkinson disease, late-onset
  • pd
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PACRG in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PACRG

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PACRG: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PACRG Gene

Publications for PACRG Gene

  1. Identification of a novel gene linked to parkin via a bi-directional promoter. (PMID: 12547187) West AB … Farrer MJ (Journal of molecular biology 2003) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Molecular analysis of the PArkin co-regulated gene and association with male infertility. (PMID: 19268936) Wilson GR … Lockhart PJ (Fertility and sterility 2010) 3 22 44 58
  3. Analysis of PArkin Co-Regulated Gene in a Taiwanese-ethnic Chinese cohort with early-onset Parkinson's disease. (PMID: 19196541) Taylor JM … Lockhart PJ (Parkinsonism & related disorders 2009) 3 22 44 58
  4. Genetic analysis of parkin co-regulated gene (PACRG) in patients with early-onset parkinsonism. (PMID: 15925106) Deng H … Jankovic J (Neuroscience letters 2005) 3 22 44 58
  5. Susceptibility to leprosy is associated with PARK2 and PACRG. (PMID: 14737177) Mira MT … Schurr E (Nature 2004) 3 4 44 58

Products for PACRG Gene

Sources for PACRG Gene

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