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Aliases for ODC1 Gene

Aliases for ODC1 Gene

  • Ornithine Decarboxylase 1 2 3 5
  • ODC 3 4
  • Ornithine Decarboxylase 3
  • EC 4

External Ids for ODC1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ODC1 Gene

  • GC02M010365
  • GC02M010631
  • GC02M010602
  • GC02M010531
  • GC02M010497
  • GC02M010580

Summaries for ODC1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ODC1 Gene

  • This gene encodes the rate-limiting enzyme of the polyamine biosynthesis pathway which catalyzes ornithine to putrescine. The activity level for the enzyme varies in response to growth-promoting stimuli and exhibits a high turnover rate in comparison to other mammalian proteins. Originally localized to both chromosomes 2 and 7, the gene encoding this enzyme has been determined to be located on 2p25, with a pseudogene located on 7q31-qter. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

GeneCards Summary for ODC1 Gene

ODC1 (Ornithine Decarboxylase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ODC1 include Colorectal Cancer and Sleeping Sickness. Among its related pathways are Integrated Breast Cancer Pathway and Validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional activation. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and ornithine decarboxylase activity. An important paralog of this gene is AZIN2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ODC1 Gene

  • Catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of polyamine biosynthesis that converts ornithine into putrescine, which is the precursor for the polyamines, spermidine and spermine. Polyamines are essential for cell proliferation and are implicated in cellular processes, ranging from DNA replication to apoptosis.

Gene Wiki entry for ODC1 Gene

Additional gene information for ODC1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ODC1 Gene

Genomics for ODC1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ODC1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ODC1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH02J010446 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 650.7 -0.2 -201 5 MLX ZFP64 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC RCOR2 NBN ENSG00000257135 LOC101929715 ODC1 SNORA80B GC02M010446 ENSG00000239300
GH02J010493 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 10.7 -45.3 -45322 1.7 FOXA2 SIN3A ETS1 FOS DEK NFKBIZ REST SMARCB1 KAT8 NFIL3 SNORA80B ODC1 NOL10 PIR33833 LOC105373426
GH02J010487 Enhancer 1 ENCODE 10.7 -38.7 -38736 0.2 PKNOX1 CLOCK FOXA2 MLX ARID4B NEUROD1 SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 ETS1 SNORA80B ODC1 PIR33833 LOC105373426
GH02J010490 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 10.7 -42.4 -42392 1.2 HDAC1 ELF3 CLOCK SAP130 E2F1 CTBP1 GATA3 E2F8 NFE2 MAFK SNORA80B ODC1 PIR33833 LOC105373426
GH02J010477 Enhancer 0.6 ENCODE 12.2 -29.0 -29000 0.6 DRAP1 SAP130 MAX ETV5 RARA GABPA TEAD3 ZFP91 ZNF24 TCF7L2 ODC1 SNORA80B PIR33833 LOC105373426
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ODC1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ODC1 gene promoter:
  • STAT3
  • RORalpha2
  • Ik-3
  • AML1a
  • FOXO4
  • En-1
  • PPAR-gamma1
  • PPAR-gamma2
  • Lmo2
  • Nkx3-1 v1

Genomic Locations for ODC1 Gene

Genomic Locations for ODC1 Gene
8,587 bases
Minus strand
8,537 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for ODC1 Gene

Genes around ODC1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ODC1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ODC1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ODC1 Gene

Proteins for ODC1 Gene

  • Protein details for ODC1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Ornithine decarboxylase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q53TU3
    • Q6LDS9

    Protein attributes for ODC1 Gene

    461 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    51148 Da
    Name=pyridoxal 5-phosphate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:597326;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Only the dimer is catalytically active, as the active sites are constructed of residues from both monomers (Probable). Does not form a heterodimer with AZIN2 (By similarity).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ODC1 Gene

neXtProt entry for ODC1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for ODC1 Gene

  • S-Nitrosylation inhibits the enzyme. S-Nitrosylated in vitro on 4 cysteine residues.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for ODC1 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ODC1 Gene

Domains & Families for ODC1 Gene

Gene Families for ODC1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ODC1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the Orn/Lys/Arg decarboxylase class-II family.
  • Belongs to the Orn/Lys/Arg decarboxylase class-II family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ODC1: view

Function for ODC1 Gene

Molecular function for ODC1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of polyamine biosynthesis that converts ornithine into putrescine, which is the precursor for the polyamines, spermidine and spermine. Polyamines are essential for cell proliferation and are implicated in cellular processes, ranging from DNA replication to apoptosis.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-ornithine = putrescine + CO(2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited by S-nitrosylation (PubMed:10462479, PubMed:11461922). Inhibited by antizymes (AZs) OAZ1, OAZ2 and OAZ3 in response to polyamine levels. AZs inhibit the assembly of the functional homodimer by binding to ODC monomers. Additionally, OAZ1 targets ODC monomers for ubiquitin-independent proteolytic destruction by the 26S proteasome (PubMed:17900240). Inhibited by 1-amino-oxy-3-aminopropane (APA, an isosteric analog of putrescine) (PubMed:17407445). Irreversibly inhibited by alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) (PubMed:17407445).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=0.08 mM for L-ornithine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17407445}; Note=kcat is 3.3 sec(-1) with L-ornithine as substrate. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17407445};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Down-regulated in response to enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection (at protein level).
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
ornithine decarboxylase 1,ornithine metabolism,mitochondrial matrix

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ODC1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ODC1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0004586 ornithine decarboxylase activity TAS 2317811
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0016829 lyase activity IEA --
GO:0016831 carboxy-lyase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ODC1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ODC1: view

Animal Models for ODC1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ODC1:
  • Odc1 Odc1<tm1Jlc>
  • Odc1 Odc1<tm1b(EUCOMM)Hmgu>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for ODC1

Clone Products

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ODC1 Gene

Localization for ODC1 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ODC1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 4
plasma membrane 3
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
lysosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Plasma membrane (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ODC1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005575 cellular_component ND --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA,ISS --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0048471 perinuclear region of cytoplasm IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ODC1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ODC1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for ODC1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ODC1: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P11926-DCOR_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amine and polyamine biosynthesis; putrescine biosynthesis via L-ornithine pathway; putrescine from L-ornithine: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ODC1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001822 kidney development IEA --
GO:0006521 regulation of cellular amino acid metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006595 polyamine metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006596 polyamine biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0008284 positive regulation of cell proliferation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ODC1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ODC1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ODC1 Gene

(89) Drugs for ODC1 Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
spermine Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Antagonist, Pore Blocker, Channel blocker, Target, product of 0
Pyridoxal Phosphate Approved, Investigational Nutra Target, cofactor 17
Eflornithine Approved, Withdrawn Pharma inhibitor, Target, antagonist, blocker 34
Carbon dioxide Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma 0
Ornithine Approved Nutra 70

(84) Additional Compounds for ODC1 Gene - From: Novoseek, HMDB, and IUPHAR

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Inhibition, Inhibitor 68278-23-9
Inhibition, Inhibitor
  • 1,3-Propanediamine
  • 1,3-Propylenediamine
  • Propane-1,3-diamine
  • tn
  • 1,3-diamino-N-Propane
  • N'-acetylspermine
  • N'-monoacetylspermine
  • N(1)-Acetylspermine
  • N-(3-((4-((3-Aminopropyl)amino)butyl)amino)propyl)-acetamide
  • N-Acetylspermine
  • 1,7-diamino-4-Azaheptane
  • 3,3'-Iminobis(propylamine)
  • 3,3'-Iminobispropylamine
  • 3,3'-Iminodi(propylamine)
  • 3,3-Diaminodipropylamine
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ODC1: view

Transcripts for ODC1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ODC1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ODC1 Gene

Ornithine decarboxylase 1:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for ODC1

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ODC1 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15a ·
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - -
SP4: - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - -
SP9: -
SP11: - - - - - - - - -
SP12: - - - - - - -
SP13: -

ExUns: 15b ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18

Relevant External Links for ODC1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ODC1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ODC1 Gene

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for ODC1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ODC1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ODC1 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ODC1 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.6)
  • Intestine(4.2)
  • Lung(4.2)
  • Skin(4.1)
  • Liver(3.4)
  • Pancreas(3.4)
  • Eye(3.3)
  • Stomach(3.1)
  • Kidney(3)
  • Muscle(2.6)
  • Blood(2.5)
  • Heart(2.5)
  • Spleen(2.4)
  • Adrenal gland(2.3)
  • Thyroid gland(2.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ODC1: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ODC1 Gene

Orthologs for ODC1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for ODC1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ODC1 34 33
  • 99.57 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 91 (a)
-- 34
  • 91 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ODC1 34 33
  • 89.01 (n)
-- 34
  • 77 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ODC1 34
  • 89 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ODC1 34 33
  • 88.94 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Odc1 16 34 33
  • 86.62 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Odc1 33
  • 86.62 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ODC1 34 33
  • 78.19 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ODC1 34
  • 82 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia odc1 33
  • 74.73 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia odc1-prov 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii odc1 34 33 33
  • 67.25 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.5110 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP011805 33
  • 52.63 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Odc1 34 35 33
  • 51.63 (n)
Odc2 34 35
  • 41 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea odc-1 35 33
  • 53.91 (n)
F53F10.2a 35
  • 28 (a)
F53F10.2 34
  • 24 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0B02673g 33
  • 54.12 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SPE1 36 34 33
  • 52.38 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AER087C 33
  • 51.52 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os09g0543400 33
  • 49.54 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes spe1 33
  • 55.18 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU01271 33
  • 53.09 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10349 34
  • 43 (a)
Species where no ortholog for ODC1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ODC1 Gene

Gene Tree for ODC1 (if available)
Gene Tree for ODC1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ODC1: view image

Paralogs for ODC1 Gene

Paralogs for ODC1 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for ODC1 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

  • C9JG30_HUMAN
  • L8EA08_HUMAN Pseudogenes for ODC1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ODC1: view

Variants for ODC1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ODC1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs2302615 protective, Colonic adenoma recurrence, reduced risk of 10,448,012(-) C/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000101367 -- 10,447,155(-) T/C intron_variant
rs1000614261 -- 10,446,692(-) C/G intron_variant
rs1000665289 -- 10,446,949(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1000979644 -- 10,442,798(-) C/A/T intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ODC1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv23515 CNV loss 19812545
nsv1007185 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1072922 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv580963 CNV gain 21841781
nsv580964 CNV gain+loss 21841781
nsv580965 CNV gain 21841781
nsv580966 CNV loss 21841781
nsv580967 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for ODC1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 6.02% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.40; 27.49% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ODC1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ODC1 Gene

Disorders for ODC1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(24) MalaCards diseases for ODC1 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
colorectal cancer
  • crc
sleeping sickness
  • african sleeping sickness
transient cerebral ischemia
  • tia
esophagus carcinoma in situ
  • carcinoma in situ of esophagus
kidney hypertrophy
  • hypertrophy of kidney
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ODC1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for ODC1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ODC1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ODC1 Gene

Publications for ODC1 Gene

  1. Genetic polymorphism in ornithine decarboxylase and risk of breast cancer. (PMID: 19225907) Brown I … Schofield AC (Familial cancer 2009) 3 22 44 58
  2. Human ornithine decarboxylase paralogue (ODCp) is an antizyme inhibitor but not an arginine decarboxylase. (PMID: 17900240) Kanerva K … Andersson LC (The Biochemical journal 2008) 3 4 22 58
  3. Ornithine decarboxylase polymorphism modification of response to aspirin treatment for colorectal adenoma prevention. (PMID: 17047198) Barry EL … O'Brien TG (Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2006) 3 22 44 58
  4. Pronounced reduction in adenoma recurrence associated with aspirin use and a polymorphism in the ornithine decarboxylase gene. (PMID: 12810952) Martinez ME … Gerner EW (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003) 3 22 44 58
  5. Nitric oxide inhibits ornithine decarboxylase via S-nitrosylation of cysteine 360 in the active site of the enzyme. (PMID: 11461922) Bauer PM … Ignarro LJ (The Journal of biological chemistry 2001) 3 4 22 58

Products for ODC1 Gene

Sources for ODC1 Gene

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