Aliases for MTRR Gene
External Ids for MTRR Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MTRR Gene
This gene encodes a member of the ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (FNR) family of electron transferases. This protein functions in the synthesis of methionine by regenerating methionine synthase to a functional state. Because methionine synthesis requires methyl-group transfer by a folate donor, activity of the encoded enzyme is important for folate metabolism and cellular methylation. Mutations in this gene can cause homocystinuria-megaloblastic anemia, cbl E type. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2015]
GeneCards Summary for MTRR Gene
MTRR (5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine Methyltransferase Reductase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MTRR include Homocystinuria-Megaloblastic Anemia, Cble Complementation Type and Neural Tube Defects, Folate-Sensitive. Among its related pathways are Metabolism of water-soluble vitamins and cofactors and Cytochrome P450 - arranged by substrate type. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and flavin adenine dinucleotide binding. An important paralog of this gene is NOS2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for MTRR Gene
Key enzyme in methionine and folate homeostasis responsible for the reactivation of methionine synthase (MTR/MS) activity by catalyzing the reductive methylation of MTR-bound cob(II)alamin (PubMed:17892308). Cobalamin (vitamin B12) forms a complex with MTR to serve as an intermediary in methyl transfer reactions that cycles between MTR-bound methylcob(III)alamin and MTR bound-cob(I)alamin forms, and occasional oxidative escape of the cob(I)alamin intermediate during the catalytic cycle leads to the inactive cob(II)alamin species (Probable). The processing of cobalamin in the cytosol occurs in a multiprotein complex composed of at least MMACHC, MMADHC, MTRR and MTR which may contribute to shuttle safely and efficiently cobalamin towards MTR in order to produce methionine (PubMed:27771510). Also necessary for the utilization of methyl groups from the folate cycle, thereby affecting transgenerational epigenetic inheritance (By similarity). Also acts as a molecular chaperone for methionine synthase by stabilizing apoMTR and incorporating methylcob(III)alamin into apoMTR to form the holoenzyme (PubMed:16769880). Also serves as an aquacobalamin reductase by reducing aquacobalamin to cob(II)alamin in the presence of NADPH; this reduction leads to stimulation of the conversion of apoMTR and aquacobalamin to MTR holoenzyme (PubMed:16769880).