Aliases for MSH2 Gene
External Ids for MSH2 Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for MSH2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MSH2 Gene
This locus is frequently mutated in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). When cloned, it was discovered to be a human homolog of the E. coli mismatch repair gene mutS, consistent with the characteristic alterations in microsatellite sequences (RER+ phenotype) found in HNPCC. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
GeneCards Summary for MSH2 Gene
MSH2 (MutS Homolog 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MSH2 include Lynch Syndrome I and Mismatch Repair Cancer Syndrome 2. Among its related pathways are DNA Double-Strand Break Repair and Immune response IL-23 signaling pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and enzyme binding. An important paralog of this gene is MSH3.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for MSH2 Gene
Component of the post-replicative DNA mismatch repair system (MMR). Forms two different heterodimers: MutS alpha (MSH2-MSH6 heterodimer) and MutS beta (MSH2-MSH3 heterodimer) which binds to DNA mismatches thereby initiating DNA repair. When bound, heterodimers bend the DNA helix and shields approximately 20 base pairs. MutS alpha recognizes single base mismatches and dinucleotide insertion-deletion loops (IDL) in the DNA. MutS beta recognizes larger insertion-deletion loops up to 13 nucleotides long. After mismatch binding, MutS alpha or beta forms a ternary complex with the MutL alpha heterodimer, which is thought to be responsible for directing the downstream MMR events, including strand discrimination, excision, and resynthesis. Recruits DNA helicase MCM9 to chromatin which unwinds the mismatch containing DNA strand (PubMed:26300262). ATP binding and hydrolysis play a pivotal role in mismatch repair functions. The ATPase activity associated with MutS alpha regulates binding similar to a molecular switch: mismatched DNA provokes ADP-->ATP exchange, resulting in a discernible conformational transition that converts MutS alpha into a sliding clamp capable of hydrolysis-independent diffusion along the DNA backbone. This transition is crucial for mismatch repair. MutS alpha may also play a role in DNA homologous recombination repair. In melanocytes may modulate both UV-B-induced cell cycle regulation and apoptosis.