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Aliases for MRPS21 Gene

Aliases for MRPS21 Gene

  • Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S21 2 3 5
  • Mitochondrial Small Ribosomal Subunit Protein BS21m 3 4
  • MRP-S21 3 4
  • RPMS21 3 4
  • S21mt 3 4
  • 28S Ribosomal Protein S21, Mitochondrial 3
  • Mitochondrial 28S Ribosomal Protein S21 3
  • MDS016 3

External Ids for MRPS21 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MRPS21 Gene

  • GC01P147917
  • GC01P146008
  • GC01P147041
  • GC01P147482
  • GC01P147079
  • GC01P148532
  • GC01P150266
  • GC01P121644

Summaries for MRPS21 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MRPS21 Gene

  • Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S21P family. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 1p, 1q, 9p, 10p, 10q, 16q, and 17q. Available sequence data analyses identified splice variants that differ in the 5' UTR; both transcripts encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MRPS21 Gene

MRPS21 (Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S21) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Viral mRNA Translation and Organelle biogenesis and maintenance. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include structural constituent of ribosome.

Gene Wiki entry for MRPS21 Gene

Additional gene information for MRPS21 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MRPS21 Gene

Genomics for MRPS21 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for MRPS21 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for MRPS21 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J150292 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 669.8 +0.1 84 2.2 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 FOXA2 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B MRPS21 LOC105371434 ADAMTSL4 PIP5K1A PRUNE1 ARNT SETDB1 C1orf56 TARS2 SEMA6C
GH01J150362 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 20 +71.1 71087 5.2 CLOCK FEZF1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC ZC3H11A RPRD2 SETDB1 PRPF3 SF3B4 PI4KB ZNF687 UBE2D3P3 PIP5K1A ARNT HIST2H2AB
GH01J150486 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 19.9 +193.9 193920 1.7 CLOCK ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 TARS2 SETDB1 PIP5K1A PRPF3 SF3B4 PI4KB GABPB2 ZNF687 UBE2D3P3 ARNT
GH01J150507 Promoter/Enhancer 1.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 20.1 +214.8 214750 2.3 HDGF HDAC1 PTBP1 NFXL1 POLR2B GLIS2 E2F8 ZNF366 SMARCC2 ZFP91 ECM1 PRPF3 PI4KB MRPS21 ADAMTSL4 RPRD2 SETDB1 ZNF687 GABPB2 POGZ
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around MRPS21 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the MRPS21 gene promoter:
  • Hlf
  • FOXF2
  • LUN-1
  • YY1
  • p300
  • GATA-1
  • MyoD
  • Lmo2
  • Arnt
  • Bach2

Genomic Locations for MRPS21 Gene

Genomic Locations for MRPS21 Gene
15,260 bases
Plus strand
15,146 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MRPS21 Gene

Genes around MRPS21 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MRPS21 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MRPS21 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MRPS21 Gene

Proteins for MRPS21 Gene

  • Protein details for MRPS21 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    28S ribosomal protein S21, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A0A075B746
    • Q5TB11
    • Q9BST6

    Protein attributes for MRPS21 Gene

    87 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    10689 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of the mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit (mt-SSU). Mature mammalian 55S mitochondrial ribosomes consist of a small (28S) and a large (39S) subunit. The 28S small subunit contains a 12S ribosomal RNA (12S mt-rRNA) and 30 different proteins. The 39S large subunit contains a 16S rRNA (16S mt-rRNA), a copy of mitochondrial valine transfer RNA (mt-tRNA(Val)), which plays an integral structural role, and 52 different proteins.
    • Sequence=AAG14953.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAG14953.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MRPS21 Gene

neXtProt entry for MRPS21 Gene

Post-translational modifications for MRPS21 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=40
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for MRPS21 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MRPS21 Gene

Domains & Families for MRPS21 Gene

Gene Families for MRPS21 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for MRPS21 Gene


Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the bacterial ribosomal protein bS21 family.
  • Belongs to the bacterial ribosomal protein bS21 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MRPS21: view

Function for MRPS21 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for MRPS21 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MRPS21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003723 RNA binding HDA 22681889
GO:0003735 structural constituent of ribosome NAS 11279123
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPS21: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MRPS21: view

Animal Models for MRPS21 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for MRPS21:
  • Mrps21 Mrps21<tm1e(EUCOMM)Wtsi>

Animal Model Products

miRNA for MRPS21 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MRPS21

Clone Products

No data available for Molecular function , Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MRPS21 Gene

Localization for MRPS21 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPS21 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MRPS21 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
extracellular 3
cytosol 2
nucleus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MRPS21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane TAS --
GO:0005763 mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit IDA 11279123
GO:0005840 ribosome IEA --
GO:0044391 ribosomal subunit IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPS21: view

Pathways & Interactions for MRPS21 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MRPS21: view

Interacting Proteins for MRPS21 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MRPS21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation NAS,IEA 11279123
GO:0032543 mitochondrial translation ISS 11402041
GO:0070125 mitochondrial translational elongation TAS --
GO:0070126 mitochondrial translational termination TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPS21: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MRPS21 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MRPS21 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for MRPS21 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MRPS21 Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(6) Additional mRNA sequences :
(383) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for MRPS21 Gene

Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MRPS21 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MRPS21 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MRPS21 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for MRPS21 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MRPS21 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lung (24.9) and Breast (20.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for MRPS21 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MRPS21 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MRPS21 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MRPS21 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for MRPS21 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Lung(4.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MRPS21: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for MRPS21 Gene

Orthologs for MRPS21 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MRPS21 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MRPS21 33
  • 100 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MRPS21 33
  • 93.87 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MRPS21 33
  • 91.19 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mrps21 33
  • 86.59 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mrps21 16 33
  • 85.06 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MRPS21 33
  • 67.43 (n)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mrps21 33
  • 67.82 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mrps21 33
  • 61.3 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP009152 33
  • 57.25 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta mRpS21 33
  • 53.33 (n)
Species where no ortholog for MRPS21 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for MRPS21 Gene

Gene Tree for MRPS21 (if available)
Gene Tree for MRPS21 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for MRPS21: view image

Paralogs for MRPS21 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MRPS21: view

No data available for Paralogs for MRPS21 Gene

Variants for MRPS21 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MRPS21 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000089259 -- 150,293,124(+) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000249835 -- 150,292,875(+) G/C upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000606297 -- 150,309,154(+) G/A downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000758770 -- 150,302,640(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000910292 -- 150,297,170(+) A/G intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MRPS21 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3587504 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1009508 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1011223 CNV gain 25217958
nsv831548 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for MRPS21 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 78.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.71; 73.17% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for MRPS21 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPS21 Gene

Disorders for MRPS21 Gene

Additional Disease Information for MRPS21

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for MRPS21 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MRPS21 Gene

Publications for MRPS21 Gene

  1. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson SL … O'Brien SJ (PloS one 2010) 3 44 58
  2. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  3. The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present. (PMID: 11279123) Cavdar Koc E … Spremulli LL (The Journal of biological chemistry 2001) 3 4 58
  4. Proteomic analysis of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of protein components in the 28 S small subunit. (PMID: 11402041) Suzuki T … Watanabe K (The Journal of biological chemistry 2001) 3 4 58
  5. Architecture of the human interactome defines protein communities and disease networks. (PMID: 28514442) Huttlin EL … Harper JW (Nature 2017) 3 58

Products for MRPS21 Gene

Sources for MRPS21 Gene

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