Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian... See more...

Aliases for MRPL21 Gene

Aliases for MRPL21 Gene

  • Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L21 2 3 5
  • Mitochondrial Large Ribosomal Subunit Protein BL21m 3 4
  • 39S Ribosomal Protein L21, Mitochondrial 3 4
  • MRP-L21 3 4
  • L21mt 3 4

External Ids for MRPL21 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MRPL21 Gene

  • GC00U990877
  • GC11M068434
  • GC11M068415
  • GC11M068658
  • GC11M064998

Summaries for MRPL21 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MRPL21 Gene

  • Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms were identified through sequence analysis although some may be subject to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MRPL21 Gene

MRPL21 (Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L21) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Mitochondrial translation and Viral mRNA Translation. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include structural constituent of ribosome.

Additional gene information for MRPL21 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for MRPL21 Gene

Genomics for MRPL21 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for MRPL21 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for MRPL21 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around MRPL21 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for MRPL21

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the MRPL21 gene promoter:
  • AhR
  • AML1a
  • Arnt
  • c-Ets-1
  • GATA-1
  • HNF-4alpha1
  • Pax-5
  • STAT1
  • STAT1alpha
  • STAT1beta

Genomic Locations for MRPL21 Gene

Genomic Locations for MRPL21 Gene
chr11:68,891,272-68,903,835
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
12,564 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr11:68,658,744-68,671,303
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
12,560 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for MRPL21 Gene

Genes around MRPL21 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MRPL21 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MRPL21 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MRPL21 Gene

Proteins for MRPL21 Gene

  • Protein details for MRPL21 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q7Z2W9-RM21_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    39S ribosomal protein L21, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Q7Z2W9
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NKU0
    • C9JPR2

    Protein attributes for MRPL21 Gene

    Size:
    205 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    22815 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit (mt-LSU) (PubMed:28892042, PubMed:25838379, PubMed:25278503). Mature mammalian 55S mitochondrial ribosomes consist of a small (28S) and a large (39S) subunit. The 28S small subunit contains a 12S ribosomal RNA (12S mt-rRNA) and 30 different proteins. The 39S large subunit contains a 16S rRNA (16S mt-rRNA), a copy of mitochondrial valine transfer RNA (mt-tRNA(Val)), which plays an integral structural role, and 52 different proteins.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAH55088.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MRPL21 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for MRPL21 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for MRPL21 Gene

Post-translational modifications for MRPL21 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MRPL21 Gene

Domains & Families for MRPL21 Gene

Gene Families for MRPL21 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Ribosomal proteins

Protein Domains for MRPL21 Gene

Blocks:
  • Ribosomal protein L21
InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MRPL21 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • cDNA FLJ52689, highly similar to Homo sapiens mitochondrial ribosomal protein L21 (MRPL21), transcript variant 4, mRNA (B4DXI4_HUMAN)
  • 39S ribosomal protein L21, mitochondrial (RM21_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q7Z2W9

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

RM21_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the bacterial ribosomal protein bL21 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the bacterial ribosomal protein bL21 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MRPL21: view

Function for MRPL21 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for MRPL21 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MRPL21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003723 RNA binding HDA 22681889
GO:0003735 structural constituent of ribosome IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPL21: view

Phenotypes for MRPL21 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MRPL21: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for MRPL21 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MRPL21

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for MRPL21

Clone Products

No data available for Molecular function , Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MRPL21 Gene

Localization for MRPL21 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPL21 Gene

Mitochondrion.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MRPL21 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 3
peroxisome 1
cytosol 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Mitochondria (2)
  • Nucleoplasm (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MRPL21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA,IDA 28892042
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane TAS --
GO:0005762 mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit IBA,IDA 25278503
GO:0005840 ribosome IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPL21: view

Pathways & Interactions for MRPL21 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MRPL21: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MRPL21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation IEA --
GO:0070125 mitochondrial translational elongation TAS --
GO:0070126 mitochondrial translational termination TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPL21: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MRPL21 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MRPL21 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for MRPL21 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MRPL21 Gene

4 REFSEQ mRNAs :
5 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
8 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for MRPL21

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MRPL21 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e ^ 7
SP1: - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: - - - - - -
SP7: -
SP8: - - -

Relevant External Links for MRPL21 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
MRPL21

Expression for MRPL21 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for MRPL21 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MRPL21 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreas (9.8), Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (7.4), Lung (6.8), and Breast (6.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for MRPL21 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for MRPL21 Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for MRPL21

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MRPL21 Gene:

Hs.503047

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for MRPL21 Gene

  • Nervous system(3)
  • Intestine(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MRPL21: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for MRPL21 Gene

Orthologs for MRPL21 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MRPL21 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MRPL21 31 30
  • 99.19 (n)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mrpl21 17 31 30
  • 84.69 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MRPL21 31 30
  • 84.46 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MRPL21 31 30
  • 83.58 (n)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mrpl21 30
  • 82.93 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MRPL21 31
  • 65 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MRPL21 31
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MRPL21 31 30
  • 70.24 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MRPL21 31
  • 65 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mrpl21 30
  • 62.18 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.10281 30
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mrpl21 31 30
  • 59.22 (n)
OneToOne
Dr.13693 30
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.14177 30
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta mRpL21 31 30
  • 49.05 (n)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP012030 30
  • 48.63 (n)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mrpl-21 31
  • 35 (a)
OneToOne
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.11033 31
  • 35 (a)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for MRPL21 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MRPL21 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for MRPL21 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for MRPL21 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for MRPL21: view image

Paralogs for MRPL21 Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for MRPL21 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MRPL21: view

No data available for Paralogs for MRPL21 Gene

Variants for MRPL21 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for MRPL21 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 11 pos Variation AA Info Type
668907 Benign: not provided 68,903,636(-) A/G INTRON_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for MRPL21 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MRPL21 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv996248 CNV insertion 20482838
nsv374 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv428261 CNV gain 18775914
nsv509423 CNV insertion 20534489

Variation tolerance for MRPL21 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 77.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.46; 43.24% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for MRPL21 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
MRPL21

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPL21 Gene

Disorders for MRPL21 Gene

Additional Disease Information for MRPL21

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for MRPL21 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MRPL21 Gene

Publications for MRPL21 Gene

  1. Structures of the human mitochondrial ribosome in native states of assembly. (PMID: 28892042) Brown A … Ramakrishnan V (Nature structural & molecular biology 2017) 3 4 54
  2. Structure of the large ribosomal subunit from human mitochondria. (PMID: 25278503) Brown A … Ramakrishnan V (Science (New York, N.Y.) 2014) 3 4 54
  3. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson SL … O'Brien SJ (PloS one 2010) 3 41 54
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 54
  5. The large subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Analysis of the complement of ribosomal proteins present. (PMID: 11551941) Koc EC … Spremulli LL (The Journal of biological chemistry 2001) 2 3 54

Products for MRPL21 Gene

Sources for MRPL21 Gene