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Aliases for MRPL16 Gene

Aliases for MRPL16 Gene

  • Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L16 2 3 5
  • Mitochondrial Large Ribosomal Subunit Protein UL16m 3 4
  • MRP-L16 3 4
  • L16mt 3 4
  • 39S Ribosomal Protein L16, Mitochondrial 3
  • PNAS-111 3

External Ids for MRPL16 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MRPL16 Gene

  • GC11M061967
  • GC11M061086
  • GC11M059348
  • GC11M059330
  • GC11M059573
  • GC11M055920

Summaries for MRPL16 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MRPL16 Gene

  • Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MRPL16 Gene

MRPL16 (Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L16) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Organelle biogenesis and maintenance and Mitochondrial translation. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include structural constituent of ribosome and rRNA binding.

Additional gene information for MRPL16 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MRPL16 Gene

Genomics for MRPL16 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for MRPL16 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for MRPL16 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH11I059809 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 556.3 +0.3 318 2.2 PKNOX1 CLOCK SMAD1 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 IRF4 MRPL16 LOC101927226 PATL1 FAM111A-DT FAM111A STX3 GC11P059803 GC11P059703
GH11I059813 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 6.3 -4.4 -4361 3.4 HDAC1 MEIS2 TEAD4 TAL1 TCF12 NCOR1 CBFA2T2 PRDM10 ZNF740 SOX6 STX3 MRPL16 GIF GC11P059703
GH11I059774 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 5.4 +33.2 33195 5.6 ATF1 SMAD1 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B SLC30A9 ZNF143 ATF7 FOS TSHZ1 STX3 PATL1 LOC101927226 MRPL16 OR4D6 FABP5P7 ENSG00000254477 GC11P059703
GH11I059785 Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 5.5 +23.8 23805 3.8 HDGF ATF1 SMAD1 FOXA2 MLX TCF12 ZNF766 ATF7 FOS NCOA1 STX3 MRPL16 FABP5P7 GC11P059802 GC11P059703
GH11I059800 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 5.3 +9.5 9530 2.6 ELF3 NFIB ARNT RAD21 RFX5 ZNF143 ATF7 ZNF654 CEBPB MXD4 GC11P059802 GC11P059803 STX3 LOC101927226 MRPL16 FABP5P7 GC11P059703
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around MRPL16 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the MRPL16 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for MRPL16 Gene

Genomic Locations for MRPL16 Gene
4,738 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for MRPL16 Gene

Genes around MRPL16 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MRPL16 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MRPL16 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MRPL16 Gene

Proteins for MRPL16 Gene

  • Protein details for MRPL16 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    39S ribosomal protein L16, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q9BYD0
    • Q9HB70

    Protein attributes for MRPL16 Gene

    251 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    28449 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit (mt-LSU). Mature mammalian 55S mitochondrial ribosomes consist of a small (28S) and a large (39S) subunit. The 28S small subunit contains a 12S ribosomal RNA (12S mt-rRNA) and 30 different proteins. The 39S large subunit contains a 16S rRNA (16S mt-rRNA), a copy of mitochondrial valine transfer RNA (mt-tRNA(Val)), which plays an integral structural role, and 52 different proteins.
    • Sequence=AAG23818.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MRPL16 Gene

neXtProt entry for MRPL16 Gene

Post-translational modifications for MRPL16 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for MRPL16 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MRPL16 Gene

Domains & Families for MRPL16 Gene

Gene Families for MRPL16 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Ribosomal proteins

Protein Domains for MRPL16 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MRPL16 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uL16 family.
  • Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uL16 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MRPL16: view

Function for MRPL16 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MRPL16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003735 structural constituent of ribosome IBA --
GO:0019843 rRNA binding IBA,IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPL16: view

Phenotypes for MRPL16 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MRPL16: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for MRPL16 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MRPL16

Clone Products

No data available for Molecular function , Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MRPL16 Gene

Localization for MRPL16 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPL16 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MRPL16 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MRPL16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane TAS --
GO:0005762 mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit IDA 25278503
GO:0005840 ribosome IEA --
GO:0030529 intracellular ribonucleoprotein complex IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPL16: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for MRPL16 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for MRPL16 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MRPL16: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MRPL16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation IEA --
GO:0032543 mitochondrial translation IBA --
GO:0070125 mitochondrial translational elongation TAS --
GO:0070126 mitochondrial translational termination TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPL16: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MRPL16 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MRPL16 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for MRPL16 Gene

Unigene Clusters for MRPL16 Gene

Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L16:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MRPL16 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - -

Relevant External Links for MRPL16 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MRPL16 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for MRPL16 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MRPL16 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urine (18.1), Lung (6.5), and Neutrophil (6.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for MRPL16 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MRPL16 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MRPL16 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MRPL16 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for MRPL16 Gene

  • Lung(4.4)
  • Nervous system(2.6)
  • Intestine(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MRPL16: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for MRPL16 Gene

Orthologs for MRPL16 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MRPL16 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MRPL16 33 34
  • 99.87 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 88 (a)
-- 34
  • 85 (a)
LOC100855841 33
  • 84.88 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mrpl16 33 16 34
  • 85.52 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MRPL16 33 34
  • 84.06 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mrpl16 33
  • 84.06 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MRPL16 34
  • 75 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MRPL16 34
  • 69 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MRPL16 33 34
  • 66.82 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MRPL16 34
  • 65 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC101731117 33
  • 60.47 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mrpl16 33 34
  • 63.41 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10314 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP004985 33
  • 52.49 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta mRpL16 35 33 34
  • 50.84 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mrpl-16 33 34
  • 45.05 (n)
Species where no ortholog for MRPL16 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MRPL16 Gene

Gene Tree for MRPL16 (if available)
Gene Tree for MRPL16 (if available)

Paralogs for MRPL16 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for MRPL16 Gene

Variants for MRPL16 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MRPL16 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs491671 likely-benign, not provided 59,806,484(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1000040802 -- 59,809,292(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1000207020 -- 59,805,730(-) C/A downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000661079 -- 59,807,372(-) A/G intron_variant
rs1000730486 -- 59,806,013(-) G/A downstream_transcript_variant

Variation tolerance for MRPL16 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 79.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.52; 55.52% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for MRPL16 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MRPL16 Gene

Disorders for MRPL16 Gene

Additional Disease Information for MRPL16

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for MRPL16 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MRPL16 Gene

Publications for MRPL16 Gene

  1. Structure of the large ribosomal subunit from human mitochondria. (PMID: 25278503) Brown A … Ramakrishnan V (Science (New York, N.Y.) 2014) 3 4 58
  2. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson SL … O'Brien SJ (PloS one 2010) 3 44 58
  3. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T … Sugano S (Nature genetics 2004) 3 4 58
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  5. Structural compensation for the deficit of rRNA with proteins in the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Systematic analysis of protein components of the large ribosomal subunit from mammalian mitochondria. (PMID: 11279069) Suzuki T … Watanabe K (The Journal of biological chemistry 2001) 3 4 58

Products for MRPL16 Gene

Sources for MRPL16 Gene

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